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12th English – Lesson 6 – Prose – On the Rule of the Road

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12th English – Lesson 6 – Prose – On the Rule of the Road

Warm Up

(a)
From the pictures given below, identity the actions that may cause
inconvenience and discomfort to others. Discuss.

Answer: Using
mobile phones, listening to loud music and driving recklessly will cause
inconvenience and discomfort to others.

 

1. Answer the following questions in one or two sentences each.

(a)Why
did the lady think she was entitled to walk down the middle of the road?

Answer: The
lady thought that they got liberty. She could walk anywhere she liked even if
it is the middle of the road.

 

(b)What
would be the consequence of the old lady’s action?

Answer: If
the pedestrian takes to the road, the cars have to take the pavement to drive
on. The lady’s action would result in a universal chaos.

 

(c)What
does the ‘rule of the road’ mean?

Answer: The
road of the rule means that in order that the liberties of all may be
preserved, the liberty’ of everyone must be curtailed.

 

(d)Why
should individual liberty’ be curtailed?

Answer: The
individual liberty must be curtailed in order that everyone may enjoy a social
order which makes the individual liberty a reality.

 

(e)How
would a reasonable person react when his actions affect other person’s liberty?

Answer: A
reasonable person would understand that if the traffic police doesn’t interfere
with the liberty of individuals at signal points, there will be a huge traffic
jam and none will be able to drive on the road.

 

(f)Define
Liberty as perceived by the author.

Answer: Liberty
is an accommodation of interests. It is a social contract rather than a
personal affair.

 

(g)According
to the author, what are we more conscious of?

Answer: We
are more conscious of the imperfections of others than of our own.

 

(h)What
is the foundation of social conduct?

Answer: A
reasonable consideration for the rights or feelings of others is the foundation
of social conduct.

 

(i)How
can we sweeten our life’s journey?

Answer: We
can sweeten our life’s journey with the-little habits of common place
interactions accommodating the interests of fellow human beings.

 

(J)What
does the traffic policeman symbolize?

Answer: The
traffic police man is a symbol of liberty and not tyranny.

 

2. Answer the following questions in three or four sentences each.

(a)What
is ‘liberty’ according to the old lady?

Answer: According
to the Russian old lady, liberty is the right to walk in the middle of the
road. She is liberty-drunk. She wasn’t aware that if the pedestrian chooses to
walk down the middle of the road, then the end of such liberty would be a
universal chaos.

 

(b)How
would ‘liberty’ cause universal chaos?

Answer: When
liberty is used without accommodating the interests of others, it results in
universal chaos. Everybody would be getting in everybody else’s -way. Nobody
would get anywhere. Individual liberty would become a social anarchy.

 

(c)Why
is there a danger of the world getting ‘liberty drunk’?

Answer: Similar
to the Russian old lady many people are liberty-drunk. Many think that a
traffic policeman is a symbol of tyranny. Being in a hurry, the people who are
crazy driving their cars . at break-neck speed think that the traffic policeman
interferes with their right to free use of highway.

 

(d)‘Curtailment
of private liberty is done to establish social order’ – Do you agree?

Answer: Yes,
curtailment of private liberty is done to establish social order. Liberty is
not a personal affair only, it is a social contract. There are a lot of people
in the world who need to accommodate their liberty to the liberties of others.
A reasonable consideration of the rights or feelings of others in the
foundation of social conduct. When one has submitted to the curtailment of
private liberty, one may enjoy a social order which makes his liberty, a
reality.

 

3. Answer each of the following in a paragraph of 100-150 words.

(a)What
do you infer from Gardiner’s essay ‘On the rule of the Road’?

Answer: A.G.
Gardiner’s essay ‘On the rule of the Road’ is a treatise on “liberty”. He
starts the essay with an anecdote. A liberty-drunk Russian lady starts walking
down the middle of Highway frustrating car drivers, bus drivers and the traffic
police. When questioned about her behaviour, she just replied that she now has
the liberty to walk anywhere she liked. The author observes that if a-
pedestrian gives up the pavement in preference to the road, cars will be forced
to move on to the pavement. This would result in universal chaos. Everybody
would be getting in everybody’s way. Nobody would get anywhere. Individual
liberty would have become social anarchy.

Under such
circumstances the world is in the danger of getting liberty-drunk. The rule of
the road reminds the readers that in order that liberties of all may be preserv
ed, the liberty of everybody must be curtailed. Thus the traffic police at
Piccadilly Circus is not a symbol of tyranny but of liberty. He doesn’t hinder
but help the smooth flow of traffic. One has to allow curtailment of one’s
liberty to enjoy the fruits of a social order.

 

(b)Explain
in your own words, “What freedom means?”

Answer: Freedom
is not the absolute right of an individual. It is not a personal affair only
but a social contract. It is an accommodation of interests. One may exercise
freedom in matters pertaining to choice of hair-cut, clothes, sandals and
sleeping habits. There are thousand little things for which one can use freedom
and be wise or otherwise. But beyond that kingdom of freedom, one’s freedom of
action is qualified by other’s freedom. One might use trombone from midnight
till three in the morning provided it is done in the Mount Everest and not
where one’s own family members are asleep. One’s right to play on trombone must
not interfere with the liberty of neighbours to sleep in quiet. A reasonable
consideration for the rights or feelings of fellow humans is the foundation of
social conduct.

 

(c)“My
right to swing my fist ends, where your nose begins.” Elucidate with reference
to, ‘On the Rule of the Road’.

Answer: Rights
are not completely individual affairs. In order to enjoy one’s rights one has
to respect the rights of others too. The lady in Petrograd had the right to
walk on the pavement. The right to move stops when the other person’s right to
drive starts. A person may have a walking stick and roll it too. But his right
just stops where the other person’s nose begins. No one has the right to
violate the rights of others. The right, one exercises, must not affect or
erode the rights of others. One should not think of one’s own rights but also
the rights of others.

A.G.Gardiner
beautifully illustrates this idea by emphasising the metaphor of traffic rules.
Rules of road are in fact rules of politeness and unselfishness. One may have
absolute freedom in the choice , of food, religion, fashionable dress, up keep
of hair, funny hairsty le, etc. But one must be conscious of the rights of
others. So, the statement “my right to swing my fist ends, where your nose
begins” fits well with the central theme of the essay ‘ On the Rule of the
Road’.

 

(d)Civilization
can only exist when the public collectively accepts constraints on its freedom
of action – Explain.

Answer: Human
beings, by nature are quick to find fault with the imperfections of others.
They don’t usually realize the truth that they have to accommodate their
liberty to the liberty’ of others. A reasonable consideration for the rights
and feelings of others is the foundation of social conduct. It is in small
matters of conduct, in the observance of the rules of road, that we pass
judgement on ourselves. We assess ourselves as civilized or uncivilized.

We are civilized if
we enjoy our rights without violating the rights of others or eroding into the
privacy of others. It is the little habits of common place interaction that
make up the great sum of life and sweeten or make bitter the journey.

In a civilized
society, public collectively accepts the fact that freedom is an accommodation
of interests of others. It means curtailing a part of one’s own liberty to the
liberty of others. So, it is true that civilization can only exist and prosper
when the public collectively accepts constraints to its freedom of action.

 

Vocabulary

 

Pronunciation – Functional Stress

(a) Now the teacher will read the
following words. Listen carefully to the stress in each word. Write against
each word whether it is a noun or a verb and mark the stress.

 

‘contract: con’tract

‘conduct: con’duct

‘object: ob’ject

‘subject: sub’ject

‘present: pre’sent

‘desert: de’sert

‘project: pro’ject

‘refuse: re’fuse

‘address: ad’dress

Answer:

‘contract (n):
con’tract (v)

‘conduct (n): con’duct
(v)

‘object (n): object
(v)

‘subject (n):
subject (v)

‘present (n):
pre’sent (v)

‘desert (n):
de’sert (v)

‘project (n):
project (v)

‘refuse (n):
re’fuse (v)

‘address (n):
ad’dress (v)

 

American And British English

(c)
Some British English words are given in column ‘A’. Write their corresponding
American English word is Column ‘B.’

Answer:

British-American

pavement-side walk

puil-over sweater

waistcoat-vest

chips-french fries

flat-apartment

ground floor-first
floor

underground:
sub-way

queue-line

wind screen-wind
shield

indicator-turn
signal

timetable-schedule

post-mail

holiday-vacation

autumn-face

lift-elevator

happy-happy

fully-totally

 

(d) Similarly there is a difference in the spelling of certain
words between American and British English. In Column ‘A’ words are spelled in
American. Write down the corresponding British English spelling for those words
in column ‘B (The first one is done for you)

Answer:

odor-odour

program-programme

parlor-parlour

apologize-apologise

color-colour

check-cheque

theater-theatre

gray-grey

behavior-behaviour

humor-humour

labor-labour

 

Listening Activity

 

Listen
carefully to the story being read out and answer the questions.

A boy was flying a
kite with his father. He was excited to watch the kite soar high and asked his
father, “What kept the kite up?” Dad replied “The String”. The boy said “No
dad, the string is holding the kite down.” The father suddenly broke the
string, the kite came crashing down. Now the boy understood, what was holding
the kite up. This is true in life as well. We are , advised to follow a set of
rules or a prescribed code of conduct to enable us to reach our full potential.
However, very often we hear the phrase “I want to be free.” If you take the
train off the track, it is free. But where would it go? If each one of us
follow our own traffic rules and drive on any side of the road what would you
call it? Freedom or chaos? By observing rules we are actually gaining freedom.
This is what.discipline is all about.

 

1.According
to the father what kept the kite up?

(a) the kite itself

(b) air

(c) the string

(d) father’s skills

Answer: (c)
the string

 

2.The
string helped the kite to ______

(a) withstand the
pressure

(b) break free

(c) crash

(d) soar high

Answer: (d)
soar high

 

3.To
realize our full potential, we should ______

(a) obey our elders

(b) follow a set of
rules

(c) work hard

(d) plan well

Answer: (b)
follow a set of rules

 

4.A
train should go on the ______ to reach its destination.

(a) track

(b) line

(c) road

(d) path

Answer: (a)
track

 

5.Taking
freedom in our own hands will lead to ______

(a) self-discipline

(b) chaos

(c) a code of
conduct

(d) freedom

Answer: (b)
chaos

 

6.The
main idea of the passage is ______

(a) the art of
flying kites

(b) father’s advice
to his son

(c) the importance
of discipline

(d) the right to
freedome

Answer: (c)
the importance of discipline

 

Speaking Activity

 

(a) Everybody enjoys holidays but,
when it comes to safety ‘There is no holiday for Safety’. Discuss in groups
what safety measures one should take while driving a car/ two wheeler.

 

Group A:

While riding a
bike, the rider should wear a helmet. If there is a pillion rider, he/she
should also wear a helmet. When the signal is yellow, one must stop the vehicle
as, red signal will follow soon. Don’t ride or drive with a breakneck speed. If
somebody tries to cross the road suddenly, there could be a fatal accident.
Before leaving the home, check the tyre pressure, adequacy of petrol or diesel
or electricity if it is an electric bike/scooter. Thus, you can ensure safety
by adopting the above strategies.

 

Group B:

If you plan to
travel by a car, leave at least one hour early to avoid peak hour traffic. Wear
seat belt. Before overtaking ensure if the vehicle ahead of you wishes to take
a ‘U’ turn or not. If you wish to take a right turn or a left turn use the
indicator to warn the following vehicle of your intended change in the
direction of travel. If you tend to travel near a school, don’t speed up, look
on either side to verify if children are trying to cross the road. Don’t honk
near hospitals and schools. If there is an unmanned level crossing, park your
car 10 metres away from the level crossing, check for the movement of train on
either side. Even if the train is seen far away, wait for the train to pass by.

 

(b) Your school has arranged for a road safety campaign, Share a
few ideas with your classmates which can be used during the campaign. For
example ‘Speed thrills but kills’.

 

The
following are some interesting slogans to be used in the road safety campaign.

 

Drive as if every child on the road is
your own.

A spill, a slip, a hospital trip

Start early, drive slowly, reach
safely

An accident would cripple your income

Safety protects people

Safety starts within you

Risk prevention is better than cure

Drowsy driving is impaired driving

Fast drive’ could be the last drive

Don’t lose your head to gain a minute,
you need your head your brains are in it

Hug your kids at home but belt them in
the car

Safety first because accident last

Chance takers are accident makers

Accidents hurts but safety doesn’t

Speed kills, slow down

Be cautious, nearly 40% victims in
road accidents are pedestrians

Sober up, drunk driving kills

 

Reading

 

Cyber Safety

Given below is a text on “Cyber
safety” developed from the inputs received from Crime- Branch Crime
Investigation Department (CBCID), Tamil Nadu dated: 05.12.2018. Read the text
and answer the questions that follow.

 

1.How
should teenagers guard against cyber crimes?

Answer:

Desist from
interacting with strangers on social media and never meet strangers in person
pursuant to social media chat/interaction.

Avoid having your picture as profile
picture. Even if you choose to have one, do so while restricting those persons
who can see your profile picture.

Do not download software’s/Apps from
unknown sources. Do not download unnecessary apps in the devices. Be a member
of social media group or whatsapp group only if you know majority of members in
it and also if it is relevant to be part of the group. Do not believe and
blindly share message in social media without verifying the facts.

Keep front camera of mobile phones,
laptops etc., closed when not used. For Example, Stickers may be used to close
the camera and to avoid remote access of front camera.

 

2.What
should we do to ensure Safe Surfing?

Answer:

Use a secure browser.

Do not surf unsafe websites. A website
with URL starting with https:// is a secure website. If the website URL starts
only as http://, it is unsecure.

Avoid clicking on links from unknown
mails/pop ups.

Do not enter passwords when connected
to a public network (WiFi in Railway station or Airports)

Always use a computer in which updated
Anti Virus is installed.

 

3.What
are the details not to be revealed in public domain ?

Answer:

Any Passwords

Bank account /credentials

Credit card/Debit card details

Personal mobile number

Date of Birth

Any details which would help to track
your routine activities

 

4.What
should parents do to ensure the safety of children in cyber space ?

Answer:

Set a fixed time during which children
are allowed to surf the internet.

Always place the computer in that part
of the house, which is visited most often by everyone. Don’t keep the computer
in a secluded part. Talk with the children and educate them on the websites
that they are allowed / not allowed to visit.

Be “Friends” with the children’s
social media account so that their activities are monitored.

Install an Anti Virus with parental
control in the computer.

Make it a habit to check browsing
history/hidden files, apps installed etc., on the computer/ device to monitor
activity of the children.

 

5.Should children be discouraged from
playing online games?

Answer: Yes,
the following steps can be followed to discourage children from playing online
games.

 

Encourage children to play outdoor
games.

Monitor closely if they are found
playing a single game for long hours.

Watch out for early signs of addiction
to games such as

Decreasing Academic activity 4 Less
time spent with family

Loss of interest in things previously
enjoyed.

Lack of sleep / Sore Eyes

Headaches

Create awareness about the ill-effects
of dangerous online games.

 

Grammar

 

Agreement of the subject with the verb

Task 1

I. Choose the correct option and
complete the sentences.

 

Manoj ________ (was, were) present
along with his parents.

Each of these boys ________ (has,
have) passed.

Neither Lekha nor Leela ________ (has,
have) been selected.

Every man, woman and child ________
(was, were) happy.

One of the machines ________ (is, are)
defective.

A number of books ________ (is, are)
missing.

Seker or his brothers ________ (has,
have) done it.

To make a promise and then not to keep
it ________ (is, are) dishonesty.

One or the other of those men ________
(has, have) lodged a complaint.

TO. Each leaf and each flower ________
(was, were) stripped off the tree.

Answer:

was

has

3. has

were

is

are

have

is

has

was

 

Task 2

II.
Identify the errors in each of the following sentences and rewrite them
Correctly.

 

1.Either
Shyam or Ram have to pay the fine.

Answer: Either
Shyam or Ram has to pay the fine.

 

2.Abdul
as well as Karim deserve praise.

Answer: Abdul
as well as Karim deserves praise.

 

3.Ten
thousand rupees a month are an insufficient income.

Answer: Ten
thousand rupees a month is an insufficient income.

 

4.Many
a student were awarded at the function.

Answer: Many
a student was awarded at the function.

 

5.Neither
Veena nor her sisters has been informed of the accident.

Answer: Neither
Veena nor her sisters have been informed of the accident.

 

6.Mithra
as well as her daughters enjoy singing.

Answer: Mithra
as well as her daughters eniovs singing.

 

7.You,
who is my friend, should help me.

Answer: You,
who are my friend, should help me.

 

8.My
scissors is missing.

Answer: My
scissors are missing.

 

9.A
variety of pleasing objects charm the eye.

Answer: A
variety of pleasing objects charms the eye.

 

10.Sixty
miles are a long distance.

Answer: Sixty
miles is a long distance.

 

Writing

 

Describing a process

Task 1:

 

Preparation of apple juice

You plan to delight your parents and
sister, serving them chilled apple juice. Here is the process:

 

(Complete the sentences with the right
form of the verbs)

Four or five apples (1) ______ (take)
and (2) ______ (wash) well. They (3) ______ (wipe) dry and cut into pieces of
medium size. The seeds (4) ______ (remove). Then the apples (5) ______ (put)
into the mixer. Some milk (6) ______ (add) .The apples(7) ______ (crush) and a
fine liquid (8) ______ (obtain). This liquid (9) ______ (filter) and the juice
(10) ______ (store) in the refrigerator. It is (11) ______ (take ) out whenever
needed, and after adding sugar, it (12) ______ (sen e) in cups.

Answer:

should be taken

washed

should be wiped

should be removed

should be put

should be added

should be crushed

will be obtained

should be filtered

should be stored

taken

is served

 

Task 2:

Installing a computer

The description of
installing a computer in your study room is given in the form of jumbled
sentences. Rearrange the sentences in the right order and form a coherent
paragraph.

 

Once you connect the CPU, connect the
keyboard and mouse.

Before turning on the power, check
that all parts are connected to the CPU.

First open the box and take out the
computer parts.

Plug both the computer and the monitor
with a power cord.

Set the computer on a table or flat
surface.

Finally turn on the power.

 

Task 3:

Attempt a description of the following processes, in about 100
words each, either using the imperative or the passive.

 

1.Preparing
your favourite dish

Answer:

Finely chop one
medium size onion, 1 to 2 green chillies, half inch ginger and some coriander
leaves.

One must keep aside
8 to 10 curry leaves, 10 to 12 cashew nuts, 1 teaspoon chana dal and 1 teaspoon
of urud dal.

Heat a pan or
kadai. Add one cup rava and roast at a low flame, until the aroma of roasted
rava arises.

Shift the roasted
rava to another plate.

In a pan, heat 2
tablespoons of ghee or oil and add mustard seeds. Wait until it crackles.

Then add cumin
seeds and chana dal and fry them until brown.

Add cashews and
roast till they become golden colour. Now add finely chopped onions and.saute
them till they become translucent.

Now add green
chilly, ginger, curry’ leaves. Saute for a minute. Add tw’o and a half cups
of,water and add salt to taste.

Wait until the
water boils and add the roasted rava in four or five batches. Keep stirring and
mix well under low flame.

The rava will
absorb the water and will be cooked.

Keep on stirring
until all the water is absorbed by the rava and then turn off the flame.

Serve the delicious
upma with coconut chutney or sugar.

 

2.Organising
a birthday party in your house

Answer:

Organising a birthday party especially
for young children could be great fun.

Shortlist the names of invitees.

Write or print as many invitation
cards as necessary,

Place them inside the cover and write
the names on each cover.

Decide on the items to be served to
the invitees such as juice, cakes, ice-cream, candies etc.

Decorate the home with colour flags,
balloons, etc.

Decide on the games to be played.

Along with food items procure gift
items to be given to children who come to honour the child in the birthday
party.

Either have a photographer or
videographer to record the event.

Now go ahead with the plan, you w ill
have a wonderful birthday party.

 

3.Sending
a letter by courier service

Answer:

Write the letter, fold it and place it
inside an envelope.

Paste the right end of the envelope
and w’rite your address at the left hand bottom.

Write the addressee’s name and address
in the middle of the envelope.

Take it to the courier office.

Write on top of the envelope “By
Courier”.

Get it weighed.

The front desk personnel will ask you
to pay an amount according to the weight of the envelope and distance it has to
travel

Pay the money and get the invoice.

Now the courier is on its way to the
intended destination.

 

4.Obtaining a demand draft from a bank

Answer:

It is a very simple process.

Go to any nationalised bank and ask
for a challan to fill in details such as beneficiary’s name,date, amount,
commission to be paid.

One can turn the challan leaf to find
the Tamil version of the challan to be filled,

Total.the amount and the commission
and fill the challan.

Draw a self-drawm cheque and attach it
along with the DD challan.

The bank will deduct the money from
your account and give a demand draft to you. If you don’t have an account, the
commission amount may be a little extra.

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