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12th English – Lesson 5 – Prose – The Status of Tamil as a Classical Language

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 12th2BEnglish2B 2BLesson2B52B 2BProse2B 2BThe2BStatus2Bof2BTamil2Bas2Ba2BClassical2BLanguage Tamil Mixer Education

12th English – Lesson 5 – Prose – The Status of Tamil as a
Classical Language

 

Warm up

(a)
Name a few languages spoken in India:

Answer:
Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada, Marathi

 

(b)Mention
a few international languages:

Answer:
Spanish, French, Latin, Hebrew, Greek, English

 

1. Answer the following questions in one or two sentences based on
your understanding of the letter.

 

(а)Which
is considered the oldest work in Tamil? When was it written?

Answer:
Tholkappiyam is the oldest work in Tamil. It dates back to 200 BCE.

 

(b)What
is the evidence that supports the finding of the oldest Tamil work?

Answer:
Earliest Tamil inscriptions are the evidences which support the finding of the
oldest Tamil work.

 

(c)Mention
the Tamil works that date to the first two centuries of the current era.

Answer:
Sangam anthologies and Pattuppattu date to the first two centuries of the
current era.

 

(d)Name
the great Tamil work that speaks volumes on ethics.

Answer:
“Tirukkural” is the great Tamil work which speaks volumes on ethics.

 

(e)What
are the other classical languages mentioned by the author?

Answer:
The other classical languages mentioned by the author are viz. Sanskrit, Greek,
Latin, Chinese, Persian and Arabic.

 

(f)Can
you define and list the themes explored in Tamil Literature? Why?

Answer:
No, one can’t define the themes explored in Tamil literature. There is not a
facet of human experience that is not explored and illuminated by Tamil
literature.

 

(g)What
is unique about Tamil and its sources?

Answer:
Tamil is one of the primary independent sources of modem Indian culture and
tradition.

 

(h)Modern
Indian languages are productive on earth. Why does the author say so?

Answer:
Modem Indian languages are the most fecund and productive languages on the
earth. Each has begotten a modem (often medieval) literature that can stand
with any of the modem literatures of the world.

 

(i)Which
language is as old as Latin?

Answer:
Tamil is as old as Latin and older than Arabic.

 

(j)Why
is it said that Tamil has the most independent tradition?

Answer:
Tamil arose as an entirely independent tradition with almost no influence from
Sanskrit and other languages. Its ancient literature is indescribably vast and
rich.

 

(k)What
is the role of Classical Tamil in Modern Tamil and Malayalam?

Answer:
Just as Sanskrit is the source of the modem Indo-Aryan languages, classical
Tamil is the source language of modem Tamil and Malayalam.

 

2. Answer the following questions in three or four sentences each.

(а)Supreme
works in Tamil elevate it to be treated as sacred as the Vedas. How?

Answer:
Tamil has its own works that are considered to be as sacred as the vedas that
are recited alongside vedic mantras in the great Vaisnava temples of South
India.

 

(b)Tamil
is a touchstone to understand the Dravidian’s nature and development.
Elucidate.

Answer:
As Sanskrit is the most conservative and least changed of Indo-Aryan languages,
Tamil is the most conservative of the Dravidian languages, the touchstone that
linguists must consult to understand the nature and development of Dravidian
culture.

 

(c)How
do you correlate the richness of Tamil language With Indian culture?

Answer:
Unlike other modem languages of India, Tamil meets the criteria laid down for a
classical tradition. It meets each of the requirements. It is extremely old. It
is as old as Latin and older than Arabic. It arose as an entirely independent
tradition, with almost no influence from Sanskrit or other languages. And its
ancient literature is indescribably vast and rich.

 

3. Answer the following in a paragraph of 100-150 words each.

(a)How
does the author justify the statement that Tamil is a classical language?

Answer:
To qualify as a classical tradition, a language must fit several criteria. It
should be ancient. It should be an independent tradition that arose mostly on
its own, not an off-shoot of another tradition. It must have a large and
extensively rich body of ancient literature. Unlike the other modem languages
of India, Tamil meets each of these requirements. It is extremely old as Latin
and older than Arabic. It arose as an entirely independent tradition with
almost no influence from Sanskrit or other languages. Its ancient literature is
indescribably vast and rich.

Tamil is of
considerable antiquity. It predates the literatures of other modem Indian
languages by more than a thousand years. Its oldest work Tholkappiyam, contains
parts that, judging from the earliest Tamil inscriptions, dates back to about
200 BCE. The greatest works of ancient Tamil, the Sangam anthologies and
Pattuppattu, date to the first two centuries of the current era. They are the
first great secular body of poetry written in India, predating Kalidasa’s works
by two hundred years.

 

(b)Tirukkural
is a fine example of an outstanding quality of classical Tamil Literature.
Substantiate.

Answer:
Tirukkural is one of the greatest works on ethics. But this is merely one of a
myriad of major and extremely varied works that comprise Tamil classical
tradition. There is not a facet of human existence that is not explored and
illuminated by this great literature. Tirukkural the sacred verses, is a
classical text considered one of the greatest works ever written on ethics and
morality, chiefly secular ethics. It is known for its universality and
non-denominational nature. Traditionally it has been appreciated as “the
universal veda” and “universal code of conduct”. The ‘Kural’ is often called
the masterpiece of Tamil literature both in philosophical and literary calibre.
Next to Bible, Tirukkural is translated into a large number of languages across
the world. Its universality appeals to readers in Japan and Singapore as well.

 

(a) Analogy

 

Now
complete each analogy with appropriate words from the list given below:

changeable:
indifference

nuance:
insignificant

refusal:
long-established

drastic: hide

 

CLASSICAL: TRADITIONAL

ancient: ______

 

UNIQUE: COMMON

sensibility: ______

 

INDIGENOUS: NATIVE

extreme: ______

 

FACET: ASPECT

subtlety: ______

 

SACRED: IRREVERENT

conservative: ______

 

OBVIOUS: DOUBTFUL

vital: _________

 

INFLUENCE: IMPACT

denial: ______

 

ILLUMINATE: DARKEN

explore: ______

Answer:

long-established

indifference

drastic

nuance

changeable

insignificant

refusal

hide

 

(b) Suffixes

Match
the -ics words with their appropriate meanings. You can make use of a
dictionary.

 

Words
– Meanings

Linguistics – the scientific study of
a language

Numismatics – the study of principles
of beauty

Electro Dynamics – the study of speech
sounds

Phonetics – the study of genes

Aesthetics – the study of analysing
information shown in numbers

Genetics – the study of government and
using power in public life

Statistics – the study of building and
flying air-craft

Politics – the study of money and
coins

Aeronautics – the study of processing
data for storage and retrieval

Informatics – the study of the way
that electric currents and magnetic fields affect each other

Answer:

the scientific study of a language

the study of money and coins

the study of the way that electric
currents and magnetic fields affect each other

the study of speech sounds

the study of principles of beauty

the study of genes

the study of analysing information
shown in numbers

the study of government and using
power in public life

the study of building and flying
air-craft

the study of processing data for
storage and retrieval

 

(c) Homonyms, Homophones and Homograph Complete the following with appropriate
words from the box given.

My mother brought an expensive watch
as a birthday _______

Everybody accepted the fact that
overeating could easily _______ to obesity.

In the middle ages, people were
trained to become a _______ at a young age.

Akshitha’s brother plays the bugle in
his school _______

The weather is fine and the air is
filled with the _______ of lemons.

What a splendid _______ the emperor
Alexander’s might have been!

Humans have foot, animals have _______

They know how to _______ their mobile
phones online.

The teacher is so happy that all the
students are

The cars were in the traffic jam.

It is not easy for him to tie in his
shoe laces

Answer:

present

lead

knight

band

scent

reign

paws

sell

present

stationary

bows

 

(e) Descriptive Words

Go
through the letter of Prof. George L Hart once again and enlist the words
describing Tamil.

 

e.g. oldest: indegenous: unique:
classical: secular

universal: independent: vast: rich:
vital

 

Identify
the words that mean the following.

This is something that is related to
ancient time ______

The word that describes pleasing in
appearance ______

Things that are not specifically
religious ______

The word to mention a large number
______

This describes something which is
produced or belongs to a particular region ______

The thing that cannot be described
______

This one is something which cannot
come out of tradition

The quality of existing or involving
everywhere

Answer:

antiquity

aesthetics

secular

myriad

indigenous

indescribable

conservative

universality

 

Listening Activity

The oath taken by Graduates of
Medicine is given as Listening passage.

After listening to the pledge played
on the tape recorder carefully, fill in the following . statements with the
right options given:

 

(a)The
medical graduates take oath to dedicate their ______ to the service of
humanity.

(a) money

(ii) talent

(iii) life

(iv) nation

Answer:
(iii) life

 

(b)The
______ of the patient should be the doctor’s greatest concern.

(i) dignity

(ii) gratitude

(iii) health

(iv) honour

Answer:
(iii) health

 

(c)The
would-be graduates promise to practise their profession with ______

and dignity.

(i) conscience

(ii) knowledge

(iii) understanding

(iv) respect

Answer:
(ii) knowledge

 

(d)They
should respect the ______ of the patients.

(i) age

(ii) wealth

(iii) background

(iv) secrets

Answer:
(iv) secrets

 

(e)The
pledge is also to treat the patients without any ______

(i) fee

(ii) discrimination

(iii) interest

(iv) hatred

Answer:
(ii) discrimination

 

Speaking Activity

 

Debate

Important Rules

 

The speakers must greet the
chairperson, judges and the audience.

The team supporting or opposing the
motion must not change their point of view.

If a speaker makes a statement, he or
she must be able to provide evidence or reasons to support.

The facts presented in a debate must
be accurate.

Speakers may not bring up new points
in a rebuttal speech. Reinforce your points and conclude confidently.

Points must be conveyed clearly and
effectively without getting diverted from the main stream.

Task

 

(a) Now it’s your turn to speak against the motion “Wars create
more problem than they solve.” Express your views with valid points.

Student A

Respected judge,
dignitaries on the dias and off the dias. I have come before you to speak
against the topic” wars create more problems than they solve.

Abraham Lincoln
waged the civil war in America to put an end to slavery. Of course many people
died on both sides and Lincoln himself was assassinated soon after the
abolition of slavery in America. But today America is a dream destination for
any one who wants to make a fortune trading his individual expertise in
Science, technology and ICT because the democratic foundation in America is
solid and pluralistic culture encourages people from multi-ethnic backgrounds to
emigrate and settle there as Americans. Trump administration is now taking a
tough stand against emigrants and immigrants.

 

Student B

Next point we would
like to put forward is that when we say “war” do not always think about
conventional war. We wage war against poverty, illiteracy, drug addiction,
alcoholism, bribery and terrorism. Such wars may not be won over quickly but
they are necessary. We can’t allow the government alone to fight such social
evils, we need NGOs, students and civil societies and even-principled political
parties to fight against them to build a healthy society.

 

Student C

I would like to add
that Swachata Abhiyan itself is a war against ignorance of people about the
consequences of keeping their surroundings unclean and polluted. The campaign
against Malaria, Dengue fever is a war against ill-health which necessarily
generates awareness among people to prevent mosquito-caused illness among the
masses.

We can also wage a
war against the most dangerous social evil (i.e.) educated unemployment.
Instead of just using war of words trying to prove our oratorical skills, we
had better focus on skilling of youth in our country so that they can become
self-reliant entrepreneurs giving employment to others by utilising ‘Mudra
loan’. In fact launching of Atal tinkering labs all over the country at the
higher secondary level is the first step in the direction of skilling school
students. It is time we realized that paper degrees will not guarantee jobs, we
should arm ourselves with the skills demanded in the job market or for opening
our own small-scale industries. On behalf of my team, I conclude wars against
social evils can solve problems not create new ones.

 

(b) Conduct a debate for and against the motion.“Mobile phone – a
big boon”

 

Debate – Mobile phone boon or bane

Student A:

Shakespeare has
very wisely said: “There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it
so.” Similarly, mobile phones in themselves are neither good nor bad; however,
the way they are used makes them good or bad. Mobile phones have made our life
so easy and full of comforts! Everything is available online now. Our mobile
phones have become our e-wallets, e-books, e-payments, e-files, e-folders, etc.
Our mobile phones are connected with our Adhar Card, Bank Account, Loans, etc.
We do our buying and other transactions using our mobile phones. Life without mobile
phones is almost impossible in the modem times. It is neither addiction nor
creates distraction. Rather it is a basic necessity in the contemporary times.

 

I conclude that it is irrational and
illogical to say anything negative about mobile phones. As said earlier, they
should be used with discretion and precautions.

 

Mobile Phones – A bane

Student B:

My friend used a
beautiful quote in my team’s favour, “There is nothing either good or bad, but
thinking makes it so.” Unfortunately , Mobiles have become a source of major
distraction for the students. Young boys and girls seem to have become
inordinately addicted to these sites. They are thoughtlessly and uselessly
wasting their precious time on useless sites.

 

The overuse of
mobile poses serious health issues. Radiation affects eyesight due to over
exposure to mobile screen for hours. Besides, mobile phones are also
responsible for difficulty in concentration, fatigue, headaches and sleep
disorders that can further trigger health complications. Text-neck is a serious
health issue faced by mobile phone users. Owing to late night use of mobile
phones, the youngsters skip on sleep which further causes health complications.
This makes them aggressive and irritated. If you withhold an android phone from
a child addicted to games in the mobile phone, he/she starts throwing tantrum.
It is a curse that majority of the parents give the android phones to pacify
the young children who refuse food and refuse to do homework if phone is
withheld for even five minutes. Many young children who gaze at the mobile
phone for hours tend to develop eye problems too. Addiction to mobile
technology is a dangerous problem facing young children and adults of this
country. Child psychologists and social activists are really worried how on
earth we are going to wean young children away from the obsessive compulsive
disorder of using android mobile phones and how we are going to redeem the
youth from the sure disillusionment in continuing virtual friends to the point
of ignoring family ties.

 

The other major
disadvantage of the increasing use of such networking sites is the spread of
obscenity or addiction to viewing explicit content. It is worrying because even
adolescents have easy access to such sites because of the cheap data provided
by greedy telecom business men. This is having a very negative impact on the
impressionable minds of our young children and leading them astray.

 

The parents,
teachers and the government must look into the problems being caused by mobiles
and these networking sites and must formulate a strategy either to curb or
completely stop its fast growing negative influence on the minds of our youth.
Our youth is the future of our nation. We cannot allow this youth to waste
their precious time on mobiles, chatting on the facebook and whatsapp. The same
time must be spent on studying, researching and developing leadership or other
life-skills. I conclude that it is our moral duty as well as responsibility to
lead children and youth on the right path and teach them to make best use of
these wonderful gadgets to improve themselves only.

 

(c) Organize a class debate on the motion ‘The advantages of social
websites’. (Use the expressions for arguments like – First, firstly, I mean, My
point is, In my opinion, Let me consider, etc.)

 

The advantages of Social websites

At the outset, let
us consider some irrefutable facts .We live in a time and age where information
is just a button press away. We are swayed by information all around us. We
millennials want to know, read, understand and then speak our minds about it.
That is where social media comes into play. Social media is one of the biggest
elements that we live with and cannot ignore it. Social media plays a big role
in our lives today. We have the access to any kind of information at just a
button push away. Anything that is so vastly expanded has both positives and
negatives related to it. The power of social media is very high and has its
effects on each individual. It is difficult to imagine our lives with social
media today and we do pay a price for excessive use. There is a lot of debate
about the effects of social media on the society as a whole. Some feel that
it’s a boon whereas other feels that it is a curse.

Social media is a
collection of websites, applications and other platforms that enable us to
share or create content and also helps us to participate in social networking.
Social media is not limited to blogging and sharing pictures, there are a lot
of strong tools also that social media provides. That is because that the
impact of social media is very high and far reaching, it can make or break
images.

Of course, I agree
that social media is a topic of controversy today, many feel it’s a boon but
there is a majority who feels that it is a curse. It has become an inevitable
evil. Mostly people feel that social media has destroyed human interaction with
a rapid rate and has modified modem human relationships. But there are others
who feel that it is a blessing that has connected us to every part of the
world, we can meet our loved ones that are far, we can spread awareness through
it, we can send security warnings etc. There is a lot that social media can do.
But it is an unarguable fact the presence of social media has made our lives
convenient, easier and much faster.

In my opinion,
mobile phones have not lowered active social life. On the contrary, they have
made our social life more active! You must be wondering I am kidding! No I am
not. Let, me prove it. The IT revolution has made the internet network so fast
and easily accessible. As a result we are using Whatsapp, Facebook, Twitter,
Instagram, etc. more often sharing our latest whereabouts regularly, daily, or
hourly! We wish our friends, relatives good morning, good afternoon, good,
evening, or good night almost daily using picture messages or videos. Was
social life ever so active in the past? We send receive invitations, news, and
one another’s views through these socializing applications! What will you call
this exchange of information? Has it lowered active social life or heightened
active social life?

Role
of media in Jasmine revolution:

I would like to
give some examples as to how social websites can overhaul even governments. In
an article “The Emerging Role of Social Media in Political and Regime Change”
by Rita Safranek, published in ProQuest, talks about social media as a major
catalyst in bringing about the change in many countries that were going through
a major period of political unrest. The author talks about the triggering point
of the Jasmine Revolution, the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi was captured
by passers-by and posted and re-posted on YouTube for everyone to see.
Furthermore, the mass protests at his funeral also spread quickly all over. The
author goes on to say that despite very strict censorship of the internet by
Tunisia’s government, Tunisians were able to emerge as highly connected – 33%
of the Tunisian population uses the internet, 16% uses Facebook and 18% uses
Twitter.

Although the
government did block YouTube during the crucial period of protests, it was
unable to stop experienced bloggers and activists from finding alternate
methods like by using private and proxy networks to post and re-post various
contents and videos all over the cyber world. In fact, there was an eight
percent increase in the number of Facebook users in Tunisia in the beginning of
January 2011. The nature of the content being shared also changed with time –
more content related to the current political situation and unrest was being
shared. Although the author credits social media with helping organize the
protest and connect activists, she also goes on to say that the social media
will not be helpful with running the country which is the current concern in
the country at present.

Social
media and Jallikkattu Protests:

In my opinion, the
success of Jallikkattu is a recent example. The youth of the entire state of
Tamil Nadu clamoured for the right to conduct a traditional sport that half of
them had only seen on television. How did the Jallikattu case that has been in
court for years, suddenly capture the imagination of the masses, enough to make
them skip school, college and work . and take to the streets? How they gathered
in millions in the Marina beach and camped there for weeks to press their
demands in the most incredible manner. The answer to this is buried ‘ beneath
superior internet connectivity, hash tags, viral videos, disenchantment and the
post-truth phenomenon. Tamil Nadu boasts of spectacular rural teledensity, well
ahead of most other parts of the country.

 

Reading

 

(a) Read the following passage carefully and answer the following
questions.

Pollution is the
introduction of contaminants into the environment that causes harm to the
ecosystem. The different kinds of pollution are air pollution, water pollution
and land pollution. The release of various gases, finely divided solid
particles, or liquid droplets that escape into the atmosphere to disperse and
dilute in the environment is called air pollution. Modem society is also
concerned about specific types of pollutants, such as noise pollution, light
pollution, and plastic pollution.

Particulate matter
(PM), also known as particle pollution, is a complex mixture of extremely small
particles and liquid droplets that get into the air. These particles if inhaled
can affect health. The impact of PM 2.5 is particularly high in South Asia.
Outdoor pollution is caused by a variety of pollutants like public and private
vehicles, waste burning in the open, power

production
industries and construction and even cigarette smoking in public places.
Presently, air pollution is a major and growing risk factor for ill health in
India. Delhi is one of the most air polluted cities in India. The air in the
city as well as areas surrounding it has worsened to extremely hazardous levels
in the recent years. This year’s pollution level is the worst in foi r years.
Several studies have shown that poor air quality is a cause for many health
issues among people with lower respiratory disorders with symptoms like dry
cough, breathlessness, wheezing, chest discomfort, serious lung infections and
cardio vascular diseases. Some studies throw light on the fact that about 16
per cent of the deaths worldwide in 2015 were due to pollution.

Air Masks are an
option to protect oneself outdoor. Air masks can be used while commuting or
while one is exposed to a polluted area. Some of these masks also include a
layer of Activated carbon to filter the air. They protect us from suspended air
particles and particulate matter up to the size of 2.5 microns and above. Their
usage is limited to some days and should be disposed off after their prescribed
duration of usage. The price for air masks starts from Rs 100 and can go up to
Rs 500 and more. We have to take active measures to control pollution and
protect ourselves to lead a healthy and pollution free life.

 

Questions:

1.What
is meant by pollution? Mention the different kinds of pollution.

Answer:
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the environment that can
cause harm to the ecosystem. The different kinds of pollution are air
pollution, water pollution and land pollution.

 

2.How
does Particulate matter cause air pollution?

Answer:
Particulate matter (PM) also known as Particle pollution. It is a complex
mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets that get into the air.
These particles, if inhaled can affect health.

 

3.Identify
three major causes of pollution in air.

Answer:
The release of various gases, finely divided solid particles, or liquid
droplets that escape into the atmosphere to disperse and dilute in the
environment are the major causes of air pollution.

 

4.Name
the types of pollution we encounter now.

Answer:
We encounter air pollution, noise pollution, light pollution and plastic
pollution.

 

5.What
sort of health issues do people face due to air pollution?

Answer:
The quality of air in cities has reduced to hazardous levels. This causes lower
respiratory disorders with symptoms like dry cough, breathlessness, wheezing,
chest discomfort, serious lung infections and cardio-vascular diseases.

 

6.How
can we protect ourselves outdoor from air pollution?

Answer:
Air masks can be used while commuting or while one is exposed to a polluted
area. Some of these masks also include a layer of Activated Carbon to filter
the air. They protect us from suspended air particles and particulate up to the
size of 2.5 microns and above.

 

7.Suggest
a suitable title to the passage.

Answer:
Rising levels of Pollution and ways to avoid health issues.

 

8.Identify
the meaning of the word similar to the one used in the fourth para:

Answer:

(a) emerging

(b) filtering

(c) floating

(d) falling

 

(b) Read the following information given in the table below and
answer the questions.

(a)The
number of stations between Chennai Central and Hazrat Nizamudin is ______

(i) five

(ii) ten

(iii) eight

(iv) eleven

Answer:
(iii) eight

 

(b)The
train is expected to reach around 8.45 PM

(i) Warangal

(ii) Vijayawada

(iii) Bhopal

(iv) Nagpur

Answer:
(iv) Nagpur

 

(c)Between
the train runs at it’s maximum speed.

(i) Bhopal and
Gwalior

(ii) Bhopal and
Jhansi

(iii) Bhopal and
Hazarat Nizamudin

(iv) Bhopal and
Agra

Answer:
(ii) Bhopal and Jhansi

 

(d)Almost
the train reaches Vijayawada.

(i) the day after

(ii) around early
morning

(iii) late night

(iv) around noon

Answer:
(iv) around noon

 

(e)People
prefer the Rajadhani express to travel from Chennai to reach the capital
because

(i) it reaches the
destination on the same day

(ii) The charge is
reasonable

(iii) the train
halts at eight stations

(iv) it is the
shortest route from Chennai to New Delhi

Answer:
(iii) the train halts at eight stations

 

(f)The
destination of Rajadhani express is

(i) Hazarat
Nizamudin

(ii) New Delhi
junction

(iii) Old Delhi

(iv) Rajkot

Answer:
(i) Hazarat Nizamudin

 

Grammar

 

Non-Finite Verbs

Task 1

Underline
the gerunds in the following sentences.

1. Boys love playing cricket.

2. I love eating ice creams.

3. Jessie enjoys bothering others.

4. Painting is an interesting hobby.

5. Dancing gives me joy.

 

Task 2

Use
the gerundial form of the verb in the brackets and fill in the blanks.

_________ (exercise) is good for
health.

_________ (fly) a kite is fun.

_________ (shop) is my favourite
hobby.

My friend waited for the _________
(meet).

Huckleberry Finn was responsible for
_________ (signal).

Answer:

Exercising

Flying

Shopping

meeting

signalling

 

Task 3

Fill
in the blanks with the correct infinitives.

Deva forgot ______ the letter.

The doctor advised the patient ______
his medicines without fail.

Rajesh went to the airport ______ his
friend.

The bear climbed up the tree ______
the honey.

The boys went to the forest ______
birds.

tried hard ______ both ends meet.

The archaeologists are trying ______
the ruins of Keelady.

Solar energy is used ______
electricity.

______ concession, you have to apply
well in advance.

We have plans ______ to London during
summer vacation.

Answer:

to post

to take

to receive

to eat

to trap

to make

to rebuild

to produce

To get

to go

 

Task 4

Combine each of the
following pairs of sentences using participles. The first one is done for you.

Example: 1 didn’t
know what to do. I phoned the police.

Not knowing what to do, I phoned the
police.

 

1.The
baby cried. She was feeling sleepy.

Answer:
Feeling sleepy, the baby cried.

 

2.He
lived alone. He had forgotten everybody.

Answer:
Living alone, he had forgotten everybody

 

3.She
walked out. She was smiling.

Answer:
Smiling, she walked out.

 

4.The
child says he needs attention. He shouts loudly.

Answer:
Shouting loudly, the child says that he needs attention.

 

5.threw
the pen. It was broken.

Answer:
The pen being broken, I threw it away.

 

6.His
coat is tattered. It needs mending.

Answer:
Being tattered, the coat needs mending.

 

7.heard
the noise. I turned around.

Answer:
Hearing the noise, I turned around

 

8.He
was dissatisfied. He quit his job.

Answer:
Being dissatisfied, he quit his job.

 

9.The
politician entered the campus. He was accompanied by many comrades.

Answer:
Being accompanied by many comrades, the politician entered the campus.

 

10.The
girl entered the room. She was singing a song.

Answer:
Singing a song, the girl entered the room.

Articles And Determiners

 

Articles

Task 1

Complete the following exercise using
a/ an/ the/ ‘o’ (no article) in the underlined space where appropriate. Change
capital letters to lower case letters at the beginning of a sentence if
necessary.

 

According to (1) ______ National
Weather Report, cyclones are winds circulating (2) ______ counter clockwise in
(3) ______ Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in (4) ______ southern Hemisphere.
Cyclones are usually accompanied by(5) ______ stormy weather. Tornadoes and
hurricanes are types of cyclones.(6) ______ hurricane is (7) ______ cyclone
that forms over (8) ______ tropical oceans and seas. (9) ______ hurricane
rotates in (10) ______ shape of (11) ______ oval or a circle. (12) ______
Hurricane Andrew, which hit (13) ______ coasts of Louisiana and Southern
Florida in August 1992, caused (14) ______ extreme devastation. It was one of
(15) ______ most devastating hurricanes ever to hit (16) ______ U.S.. Fourteen
people died of (17) ______ Andrew’s effect.

Answer:

the

‘o’

the

the

a

the

The

a

the

The

the

an

The

the

‘o’

the

the

the

 

Task 2

Complete
the following sentences using appropriate determiners.

 

Only _____ people can afford to buy a
flat in Chennai.

She earns so _____ that she could not
make a decent living.

_____ information that she gave proved
false.

How _____ sugar do you want?

I am very tired today, as I had _____
guests today.

_____ of my students have become
doctors.

_____ do I know about his personal
life.

How _____ pages did you read?

_____ fertilizer used these days
spoils the soil.

During my student life I used to give
_____ trouble to my teachers.

Answer:

a few

little

The

much

some

Some

Little

many

The

much

Degrees Of Comparison- Transformation

Task 1

Transform
each of the following sentences using the comparative degree without changing
the meaning.

1.Very
few Indian languages are as ancient as Tamil.

Answer:
No other Indian language is more ancient than Tamil.

 

2.Hurricanes
are as dangerous as tornadoes.

Answer:
Hurricanes are not more dangerous than tornadoes.

 

3.This
is the most challenging task I have ever undertaken.

Answer:
This task is more challenging than any other task I have undertaken.

 

4.E-mail
is the fastest means of communication.

Answer:
E-mail is faster than all other means of communication.

 

5.Compulsive
gambling is the worst habit a man can develop.

Answer:
No other habit is more compulsive than gambling that a man can develop.

 

Task 2

Rewrite
each of the following sentences using the superlative degree retaining the
meaning.

 

1.Shakespeare
is greater than many other dramatists of the world.

Answer:
Shakespeare is the greatest dramatist in the world.

 

2.Some
people think that nothing is as important as money in life.

Answer:
Some people think that money is the most important thing in life.

 

3.The
peacock is more colourfull than any other bird found in India.

Answer:
The peacock is the most colourfull bird in India.

 

4.Very
few people in this town are as generous as Mr. Mohan.

Answer:
Mr. Mohan is the most generous person in this town.

 

5.No
other planet in our solar system is as cold as Neptune.

Answer:
Neptune is the coldest planet in our solar system.

 

6.cannot
do anything better for you than this.

Answer:
This is the best thing I can do for you.

 

Task 3

Replace
the comparative adjectives in the following sentences with their positive forms.

 

1.Rural
life is certainly more peaceful than urban life.

Answer:
Urban life is not so peaceful as rural life.

 

2.The
pen is mightier than the sword.

Answer:
Sword is not so mighty as the pen.

 

3.Train
journey is more comfortable than bus journey.

Answer:
Bus journey is not so comfortable as train journey.

 

4.My
mother can speak more sweetly than anyone else.

Answer:
No one can speak so sweetly as my mom.

 

5.Gold
is not more useful than iron.

Answer:
Gold is not so useful as iron.

 

Writing

 

Slogan Writing

Tips
for writing an effective slogan

 

Highlight a key benefit. The point of
a slogan is to differentiate a product or brand from that of its competitors,
while also underscoring the company’s general mission.

 

Explain the company’s commitment.

Be consistent.

Keep it short and simple.

Give them a rhythm, rhyme and ring.

Stay honest.

Make it timeless.

Be unique and different.

While writing slogans to create
awareness among the public

 

Explain the need for the change.

Make it sensible and easy to
understand.

Keep in mind the target audience and
use catchy phrases to suit the audience.

Look at the pictures given below, and
write slogans to advertise the products. Suggest your own

 

Sparkle Toothpaste – Removes bacteria
and strengthens the gums.

Zoom Cam – Captures beautiful moments

Revos Water Purifier – Pure, natural,
refreshing and healthful.

Mughal Gulab Jamun – Roly-poly syrupy
sweet, melts in your mouth as soon as you eat.

 

Write
slogans to create awareness of the following topics using the tips given above.

 

Junk food – Fast food and fast death

Labour Day – Labours are your many
hands, keep them relaxed and happy.

Save Water – Don’t let life slip down
the drain.

Yoga – Takes nothing but gives you
health, fitness and peace.

Blood Donation – Your blood can give
life to someone.

Paragraph Writing

 

Write a paragraph of about 150 words, on the following topics.

(a)The
teacher I like the most

Answer:
I like my science miss Sangeetha very much. She always uses very lively
demonstration to help us understand not only principles or formulaes in
Science, but also human values. One day she taught us how plants also have the
capacity to feel happiness and respond to the language of love. We thought it
was a joke. The next day she brought two plants of the same size in two pots.
She asked us to keep one in the next room window and one in our classroom near
the window. Both plants were watered regularly. The plant in the classroom
window was showered with love and we sang songs and spoke to her in an
endearing language. The other plant was ignored. In three months time, the
plant we doted on grew tall and started blooming. But the other plant was
drooping and about to die. One girl in my class begged the teacher to give the
same treatment to the other plant. Both the plants were kept together and the
treatment continued. In the next few7 months both grew tall. It became
difficult to tell them apart when we asked science miss how7 this happened she
said, “With love everything grows.” So, I like Sangeetha teacher very much.

 

(b)The
value of discipline

Answer:
Discipline is of much value in every walk of our lives. We need to be
disciplined in the school,home, office, institutions, factory, playground,
battlefield or other places. It is necessaiy for leading a happy and peaceful
life. It gives us lots of great opportunities, the right way to go ahead, to
learn new things in life, to experiences more within less time, etc. and grow.
Whereas, indiscipline gives no peace and progress in life, instead it creates
lots of problems. Discipline is the act of keeping one’s body, mind and soul
under control and doing all the works in the right manner in the right time. It
is also following the orders of our parents, elders, superiors, teachers and
officers who lead us towards success. We need to behave well in an orderly manner.
We should value the importance of discipline in our daily lives. People, who
are not disciplined in their lives; face lots of problems and ultimately feel
disappointed with themselves.

 

(c)Need
for Moral Education in schools

Answer:
Education is said to be complete only when it leads to the all round
development of an individual, which encompasses not only intellectual but also
moral development. The social thinking of an individual is influenced by moral
education which makes him/ her a person who can distinguish between what is
right and what is wrong. In modem times, imparting moral education has become a
basic need, where one is fast witnessing a degeneration of moral values.
Students are the future of our country. The future of our country depends on
the moral values imparted to them. Moral lessons should be properly taught
among students in homes, schools and colleges. Moral education is concerned
with moral virtues, such as respect for others, honesty and responsibility. It
is important as it gives an understanding of diversity, tolerance, mutual
respect and pluralistic values. Since young students readily and unconsciously
learn whatever is taught to them, whether good or bad, if they do not have
proper guidance, they may get misled. Therefore, it is crucial that the
students be given moral education which will make them acquire sound religious
and moral principles, that will lead to the development of appropriate
attitudes and values that will help them take good decisions in their adulthood.

 

(d)The
importance of Good Health

Answer:
We are familiar with the saying, “Health is wealth”. Health is a state of
complete physical, social and mental well being and not merely the absence of a
disease which is more important than any amounts of wealth. When there is
health and peace of mind, a person can achieve more than even he/she can
imagine. It is a resource of everyday life. Mahatma Gandhi has said, “It is
health which is real wealth, and not pieces of gold and silver”. There is nothing
more blessed than to be healthy all through life without being dependent on
anyone. People who don’t have a healthy lifestyle, suffer a range of health
disorders like obesity, high blood pressure, heart diseases, diabetes, high
cholesterol, kidney problems, liver disorders, etc. An unhealthy person will
always be worried and cannot be cheerful. Being healthy takes lots of efforts,
although, it is rewarding. Being in good health alone allows a person to
perform well in their daily lives and be successful.

 

(e)The
importance of Reading

Answer:
Descartes says, “The reading of all good books is like a conversation with the
finest people of the past centuries.” It is rightly said that Books are your
best friend as reading helps build up your confidence and uplifts your mood.
Reading can help one grow and give a new perspective in life. The more one
reads, the more one falls in love w’ith reading. Reading develops language
skills and vocabulary. Reading books is also a way to relax and reduce stress.
Reading increases creativity and enhances one’s understanding of life.

 

Reading also inspires one to develop
writing skill as well. If one wants to adopt some good habits in life then
reading should definitely be on the top of one’s list. It plays a vital role in
the positive mental attitude and development of a person. Reading leads to
self-improvement. The pleasure of reading cannot be expressed in words. One
needs to read to experience the joy of reading. There are many advantages of
good reading habits which keeps one’s mind active, strong and healthy. Reading
is essential for one’s overall personality growth and development. Besides, one
will never feel bored or lonely if one develops good reading habits.

 

Observe the following pictures and write a paragraph in about 150
words about each one of them.

 

(a)
See the question in book

Answer:

Now, in India, we
have the technology to predict the time and location of a cyclone at least 6 to
10 hours prior to its occurrence. This picture reminds one of the devastation
caused by Gaja cyclone in the recent past.

Tamil Nadu
government was much appreciated for the timely warning given to the people.
Many farmers in Nagapattinam, Thiruvarur and Pudukkottai districts who had
coconut farming were disheartened because it would take a minimum of 15 to 20
years to raise them again. On such disasters, instead of just waiting for the
state or centre to give doles of mercy, youth across the state, ‘ who are
volunteers in NSS, NCC, JRC, Scouts and Guides can swing into action and help
rebuild the victims’ homes by raising funds and by offering labour.

Volunteers can
generate awareness among people to go for mixed crops and not depend on only
one type of crop for their sustenance. Students can dig wells in such cyclone
prone districts because water becomes scarce as all electricity gets disrupted
for many weeks. If students pitch in and join in rescue and rehabilitation
work, they would be recognised as responsible citizens of the country.

 

(b)
See the question in book

Answer:

Animals in
captivity always long for freedom even if they are fed regularly. But, they
don’t like it. Animals love to hunt and eat their prey alive. Cats roam freely
and chase the rats and eat them. Even if domesticated they don’t want to be
kept in a cage like an object showcased for an audience. They want to roam
inside the house and even share the pillow of the mistress of the house. The
canary’ bird we find in the picture is a singing bird. It is sure that if the
cat were out, it would try to make a meal of him. Yet, the bird feels sorry for
the caged cat. It tries to appeal to the mistress of the house to let the cat
free.

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