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12th English – Lesson 4 – Prose – The Summit

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12th English – Lesson 4 – Prose – The Summit

1. Based on your reading of the text, answer the following
questions in one or two sentences each.

What did Hillary do with his wet boots?

Hillary cooked his wet boots over the fierce flame of the Primus and managed to
soften them.


Name an equipment and a tool carried by the climbers during their expedition.

Oxygen gear is an equipment and ice-axe and ice hammer are some tools that
climbers carry’ during their expedition.


Why did Hillary become clumsy-fingered and slow-moving?

After reaching the peak, Hillary ran out of oxygen, he was becoming
clumsy-fingered and slow-moving. So, he quickly replaced his oxygen set.


What did Hillary find in a tiny hollow?

Edmund Hillary and Tenzing reached a tiny hollow. They found two oxygen bottles
left there by Evans and Bourdillon after a failed attempt.


When did Hillary feel a sense of freedom and well being?

Their first partly-full bottle of oxygen got exhausted. They had only one
oxygen bottle to cany. With reduced load of 20 litre bottle, Hillary cut steps
down off the South Summit. So, he felt a sense of freedom and well-being.


What did Hillary mean by saying “We had had enough to do the job, but by no
means too much”?

It was providential will that Hillary found two oxygen bottles on the way up
towards Everest. As they returned successfully after the conquer of Everest,
just near their tent, their bottle ran out of oxygen. So, he says they had had
enough oxygen to conquer Everest but by no means it was too much.


2. Answer the following questions in two or three sentences each.

did the mountaineers belay?

Belaying refers to a variety of techniques used by mountaineers to exert
tension on a climbing rope so that a climber does not fall very far. A climbing
partner typically applies tension at the other end of the rope whenever the
climber is not climbing and removes the tension from the rope when the climber
needs rope to continue to climb.


was the original zest fading away?

As Hillary tried to reach the peak, he had to negotiate giant cornices on the
right and steep rock sloped on the left. They had no idea as they trudged
forward where the peak was. As Hillary cut around the back of one hump, another
higher one would swing into the view. So, their original zest was fading away.


did Edmund Hillary do to escape the large overhanging ice cornices?

In a number of places, the overhanging ice cornices were very large. In order
to escape them, Hillary cut a line of steps down to where the snow met the
rocks on the west.


did Tenzing and Edmund Hillary gift to the God of lofty Summit? How did they do

A hole was made in the ice where Tenzing placed reverentially a bar of
chocolate, a packet of biscuits, and a handfull of lollies. As Hillary
remembered that his team head Col. Hunt had requested to place a crucifix after
reaching the peak. So, he also made a hole in the snow and placed the crucifix
beside Tenzing’s gift to the Gods. Devout Buddhists believed that at least a
small token of gift should be left with Gods who have their homes in that lofty


did the photograph portray?

The photograph portrayed North Col and the old route which had been made famous
by the struggles of those great climbers in 1920’s and 1930’s.


soft snow was difficult and dangerous. Why?

The soft snow made a route on top of the ridge both dangerous and difficult.
Sometimes it held Hillary’s weight. But often it gave way suddenly. Thus it was
dangerous for the climbers. But both persisted and trudged ahead for 400 feet
and reached the southern summit.


did the firm snow at the higher regions fill them with hope?

They were a little perturbed by slippery soft snow. But as they reached firmer
snow higher up, they felt better. As one bottle of oxygen got exhausted, their
load was now less. As Hillary’s axe bit into the first steep slope of the
ridge, his high hopes were realized. The snow was crystalline and firm. They
were able to make comfortable belays to haul themselves up slowly.


3. Based on the text, answer the following questions in a paragraph
of about 100-150 words each.

How did Hillary and Tenzing prepare themselves before they set off to the
summit? (Para 1, 2 and 3)

They started up their cookers and drank lots of lemon juice and sugar. Then
they took sardines and biscuits. Hillary cleaned the ice off the oxygen sets.
He rechecked and tested them. He had removed his boots which had become wet the
day before. They were now frozen solid. It would be very challenging to start
climbing ice-cold Himalayas with such wet and chilling boots. So, he cooked
them over the fierce flame of Primus and managed to soften them up. They were
also conscious of the probabilitvof braving snow storms during the ascent. They
. fortified their clothing with wind proof and also pulled three pairs of
gloves silk, woollen, and windproof on to their hands. At 6.30 am they crawled
out of their tent into the snow. They hoisted their 30 lb. of oxygen gear on
their backs. Connecting their oxygen masks they turned on the valves to bring
life-giving oxygen into their lungs. Taking a few deep breaths, fnev got ready
to go.


Give an account of the journey to the South Col from 28,000 feet. (Para 4 to 8)

From the altitude of 28000 feet, the ridge narrowed to a knife-edge and as
Hillary’s feet were now warm, he took over the land and Tenzing followed him.
The soft snow was difficult and dangerous to tackle. Sometimes it supported
Hillary’s weight and often it gave way suddenly. After trudging several hundred
feet, they reached a tiny hollow where they found two oxygen bottles left by
Evans and Bourdillon after a failed mission. Hillary7 scraped off the ice and
found that both were full and could last till they returned from ascent if they
used them sparingly. Despite risky slips, they persisted and made 400 feet
climb to the southern summit. Hillary sought the advisability of continuing on
such a lowly snow bed. But Tenzing remarked, “as your wish.” Hillary’ made up
his mind to go on. His resolve paid off. They finally reached firmer snow
higher up fuelling their hopes of success.


Describe the feelings of Edmund Hillary and Tenzing as they reached the top of
the Summit. (Para 18)

Hillary’s first feelings were of relief on reaching Everest. There were no more
ridges to traverse and no more humps to tease them off with hope of success. He
looked at Tenzing. In spite of balaclava helmet, goggles and oxygen mask, all
encrusted with long icicles, that concealed his face, his delight was visible.
He looked around with a grin of delight. They shook hands. Tenzing hugged
Hillary’ and thumped each other till they were breathless. It was 1 .30 am. The
ridge had taken them two and a half hours but it seemed like a lifetime.


(d) The ridge had taken us two and half hours,
but it seemed like lifetime. Why? (Para 15 to 17)

Both Hillary and Tenzing reached a wide ledge. Hillary deeply felt the fierce
determination that nothing could stop them from scaling the Himalayas. He took
a stronghold on the ledge and signalled Tenzing to come up. With great
difficulty Tenzing reached the way up the crack and collapsed like a giant fish
hauled up from the ocean. There were giant cornices on the right and steep rock
sloped on the left. The ridge curved away to the right. They had no idea’ where
the peak was. As Hillary cut around the back of one hump, another would swing
anew ‘ to his view’. Time seemed never ending. Their original zest started
diminishing. The climb becoming a grim struggle. To their surprise, the ridge
ahead now dropped sharply away. A few more whacks of the ice-axe in the firm
snow’, they stood on top. It w’as 11.30, the ridge had taken two and a half
hours. But it seemed like a lifetime as they had to negotiate numerous ridges
on the way.


Describe the view from the top. What was the most important photograph? (Para
19 and ’ 20)

On reaching the peak, Tenzing and Hillary felt a great relief. To the east was
their giant neighbour Makalu, unexplored and unclimbed. Far away across the
clouds, the great bulk of Kanchenjunga loomed on the horizon. To the west they
could see the unexplored ranges of Nepal stretching off into the distance. The
most important photograph w as a shot down at the north ridge showed the North
Col and the old route. It had been made famous by the famous climbers of 1920’s
and 1930’s. It w as breath-taking view of the snow’ clad peak all round.


‘There is no height, no depth that the spirit of man, guided by higher Spirit
cannot attain’. Discuss the above statement in the context of the achievement
of Edmund Hillarv and Tenzing.


Man is naturally
endowed with an indomitable spirit. Guided by powers above man reach any
height. The grit and persistence of both Hillary and Tenzing stand testimony to
the above maxim. The conditions were really overwhelming. Hillary slipped many
times. Once he even t sought the advisability of continuing the climb under
such conditions. But Tenzing and Hillary. resolved to persist and conquer the
peak. As a reward to 400 feet climb near the south summit,,they got two bottles
of oxygen which in fact kept them alive almost up to their base camp.Both pick
up the pieces of hopes only when they come into contact with firmer as they moved up.

Though they had to
inch their way up clearing snow with the ice-axe and making a path to haul
themselves up ridge after ridge in the elusive terrain, they did not give up.
As Hillary’s ice-axe bit into the first steep slop of the ridge, his hopes were
realized. The snow was crystalline and firm. With just two or three blows,
Hillary could make a step large enough for their oversized high altitude boots.
They could create comfortable belays and trudge forward with confidence. As the
humps were continuously seen, their original zest started declining. It was at
this point Hillary saw a narrow ridge up to a snowy summit. With a few more
whacks of the ice-axe in the form of snow, they reached the top.



(a) Idioms

Given below are some idiomatic expressions with their meanings. Understand the


(a) wait for the dust to settleto wait for a situation to become clear or certain
(b) get/have all your ducks in a rowto have made all the preparations needed to do something / to be well organized
(c) fetch and carry (for somebody)to do a lot of little jobs for somebody as if you were their servant
(d) do the mathto think carefully about something before doing it, so that you know all the relevant facts or figures
(e) round the cornervery near

Fill in the blanks with the right idioms. Choose from the above given idioms.

The Sherpas are cheerful, gallant men,
who _____ tents, oxygen, food etc., for climbers during their ascent of the

The team _____ carefully so as to
reach the summit successfully.

When they had to climb through deep
new snow the party sometimes had to _____

Each member of the team had all their

We could not believe that with a few
more whacks of the ice axe in the firm snow we were _____ to the top.


fetch and carry

does the math

wait for the dust to settle

ducks in a row

round the comer


Understand the meaning of the given idiomatic expression and choose the right
one to complete the sentence.

the icing on the cake – something
extra and not essential, but is added to make it even better

break the ice – to make people more
relaxed, especially at the beginning of the meeting

(a) The conference room was silent
though packed. The chairman introduced an interactive session to ________

(b) Our headmistress not only promised
us to take us for an excursion, but also announced that on return we would get
a holiday. It was like ________


(a) break the ice

(b) the icing on the cake


(b) Phrasal Verbs

Given below are the phrasal verbs with their meanings. Use the given phrasal
verbs in sentences of your own.

turn on       to open

took over   take lead

set off         start a journey

put off        postpone


She turned on the induction stove to
prepare the dinner.

After Steven Paul Jobs took over the
lead role, Apple started making a revolution in sales.

The boy set off on foot to his uncle’s
home in the city.

Don’t put off important works as delay
could be dangerous.


Given below are some Phrasal Verbs which are frequently used in connection with
travelling. Guess the meaning and match.


(a)see off           (i)start off / to
begin a journey

(b)stop over –      (ii)to go to station or airport to say good bye to someone

(c)set off –             (iii)to stay at a place for a short period of time when
travelling to another destination


(a) (ii) to go to station or airport
to say good bye to someone

(b) (iii) to stay at a place for a
short period of time when travelling to another destination

(c) (i) start off / to begin a journey



(a)get in            (i)leave a bus,
train etc.,

(b)get off           (ii)to go away from
home for a vacation

(c)get on            (iii)arrive inside
train, bus etc.

(d)get away-       (iv)enter a bus, train, plane.


(a) (iii) arrive inside train, bus

(b) (i) leave a bus, train etc.,

(c) (iv) enter a bus, train, plane.

(d) (ii) to go away from home for a



(a)check in – (i)pay the bill when leaving a hotel

(b)check out        – (ii)arrive and register at airport or hotel


(a) (ii) arrive and register at
airport or hotel

(b) (i) pay the bill when leaving a


(c) Compound Words

(d) Semantic network

Match the following with their right field, choosing appropriately from the box

Machinery: Sports

Transportation: Geography

Weather: Travel

snow-board: Sports

snow-mobile: Transportation

snow-chains: Machinery

snow-storm: Weather

snow-bird: Travel

snow-belt: Geography


Listening Activity

First, read the
following statements. Then, listen to the passage read aloud by your teacher or
played on the recorder and complete the statements. You may listen to it again,
if required.

1. What were the reasons for our


There are many
answers to this question. Firstly, 1 would say that we owned much to the work
of previous climbers on Everest: to the experience and know ledge they passed
on, and to the fact that they had gone on trying and had never given up hope.

Next, I w ould
place the careful and thorough planning done before the climb began. On the
Everest, a large number of people have to do different things in different
places at the same time. Unless every detail had been worked out in advance,
things would quickly have gone wrong.

The third reason was the excellence of
our equipment. In particular, our oxygen apparatus was very important, and it
worked well. Without it. we could not have reached the summit.

Our own fitness
played a big part in the climb, and this was due to our periods of training, in
which we got used gradually to great heights: and to our food; and to the care
and attention we received from our doctors.

Above all else, I
should like to mention how well we worked together. That was the biggest single
reason why we got to the top. In the four months we were together we lived and
worked as a team. Not everyone could climb to the top. Some of the members had
jobs to do on other parts of the mountain; jobs that were less exciting than
climbing to the summit, but just as dangerous and uncomfortable. But everyone
played his part to the full. That was the biggest thing of all.

In the same way,
our Sherpas were magnificent. Without our tents, our oxygen, our food, our
climbing gear, the summit could not have been reached. And without the Sherpas,
we could

not have lifted all
this equipment, which weighed 750 lb., up to 26,000 feet, ready for the
assaults. No praise is too high for these cheerful and gallant men.

Finally, there was
the weather. For five weeks we had bad weather; then, after the middle of May,
we were lucky. It no longer snowed, and even the wind sometimes dropped.


Complete the following.

List any three aspects which contributed to the success of the ascent of the






Knowledge gained from other climbers

Careful planning

Excellence of equipments (oxygen


(b) Without the help of _________
nothing would have been possible.

(c) The main idea of the passage is

(d) The biggest thing of all is

(e) _________ were cheerful and
gallant men.


(b) team work

(c) factors contributing to successful
conquest of Everest

(d) togetherness of mountaineers

(e) Sherpas


Speaking Activity

(a) Group Activity

Have you ever been on an adventurou trip? If so. share your success story with
your friends.

He went on a tour
to Ooty. My PET Master said that if we were lucky’, we might see some elephants
while travelling in the small train. We saw monkeys on either side of the
track. As the train w as going very slow, wc could see the beauty’ of the
mountains and lush green trees. Suddenly, the toy train stopped. I wanted to
get down and see what was happening. My English miss who was escorting us
prevented us from getting down. Her concern was that we might get lost. But the
train did not move for about 45 minutes, and everyone became restless. I begged
the teacher to let us go out and see what was happening. As our coach was just
two coaches behind the engine and our English Miss saw a huge gathering in
front of the engine, she relented. At first, myself and Philomena got down.

We found that, in a
short while, the rest of our classmates and our teacher came there to know what
was happening. We found a baby elephant lying on the track doing some pranks.
Someone gave one banana, the baby elephant ate it and continued to sit there. I
snatched a bunch of banana which Philomena was keeping and showed it to the
baby elephant. It stretched its trunk to take it. But I carefully walked out of
the track show ing the banana. The baby elephant followed me twenty feet beyond
the track. I gave him the bunch. My English miss asked me to come back, and
before the baby elephant returned, the driver resumed the train. I can never forget
this adventure in my life


How will you organize or plan for a trip or an event? Do you have the habit of
preparing a check-list? Discuss.

If we want to
organise a trip the following things are to be alone. If it is a school trip,
we must plan well ahead and decide the place of visit and inform the parents
and get the letters of consent and if needed, subsidised charges for entry
tickets and journey expenses. Once the travel distance and duration are
finalised, it can be decided if we are going to hire a bus or take train
tickets in advance. If the distance is less than 150 Km, a bus would be fine.

If it exceeds that
distance and if the duration of the trip is about two to three days we need to
hook accommodation for students in the visiting spot and ensure safety of
children. If advance permission is required to visit a factory or a research
institute or a planetarium, we must write and get the proper permission from
the competent authorities. One escort must be fixed for every ten students well
ahead of the trip. A check list is necessary before the commencement of the
journey. The same checklist will be required to bring back the materials which
were taken from the school.


(b) Individual Activity

below are a few proverbs. Prepare a short speech of two minutes on one of the


Nothing is impossible:

Principal, teachers and my dear friends, Good morning, I wish to say a few
words on the topic “Nothing is Impossible”. Napoleon Bonaparte said,
“Impossible is the word found only in a fool’s dictionary”. Conquering Everest
was deemed impossible. In the 1920’s and 1930’s mountain climbers aborted their
efforts. The brittle snow beyond the altitude of 28000 ft. made even Hillary
doubtful for a while of the possibility of conquering Everest. But persisting
on their daring adventure, Hillary and Tenzing scaled the Everest. When the
whole world is appreciating many daring adventures of able-bodied men, a
differently abled lady namely Arunima Sinha has created history by conquering Everest.
She was a volleyball player who was pushed from a running train in an attempted

One of her legs had
to be amputated below the knee. Using a prosthetic leg, under the Inspirational
guidance of Bachendri Pal, the first Indian lady to conquer Everest, she
climbed Everest on 21st May 2013. The most admirable thing about her is that
she has climbed six difficult mountain peak of the world viz Everest in Asia,
Kilimanjaro in Africa, Elbrus in Europe, Kosciuszko in Australia, Aconcagua in
Argentina and Carstensz Pyramid in Indonesia. She completed her final summit of
Mount Vinson in Antarctica on 4th January 2019. She is running a charitable
foundation namely Arunima foundation. She wants to open a free sports academy
for the poor and differently abled children. She wrote a book “Bom again on the
mountain” which was launched by Hon’ble Prime Minister Narendra Modi in
December 2014. She was awarded Padma Sri, the fourth highest award of India in
2015. Dear friends, we must never accept small defeats in life. We must leam
lessons and believe that we can succeed and it is possible to achieve excellence
against all the odds.


Where there is a will there is a way:

Principal, teachers and my dear friends, Good morning, I wish to say a few
words on the topic “Where there is a will there is a way”.

There are numerous examples to quote from where
the will has made people create history. ‘ All of us know Mother Teresa won the
Nobel Prize for Peace in 1999. But the beginnings of her work were met with
many insults and humiliating experiences. She was moved by poverty, sickness,
suffering in old age which she encountered amidst the poorest of the poor in
the streets of Calcutta. Her heart went out for street children who could not
go to school.She wanted to give them a home and food. The financial position of
her organisation was not healthy enough. She willed to adopt orphaned children
and provide them with food, shelter and education.

If she had only
thought about financial disabilities and not taken the necessary steps, she
wouldn’t be the person we know her to be today. Similarly, Thomas Alva Edison
[. had only three months of formal schooling, and he was partially deaf too.
But that never made his mother give up on him. She took the responsibility of
teaching and training him. She persuaded and encouraged him even though she
never knew what he would become in future. Hence, dear friends when times of
trial come, or when you face mockery by people surrounding you, never give up
hope. Always remember this,“Where There is a Will There is a Way”.


Together we can achieve more:

Respected Principal,
teachers and my dear friends, Good morning, I wish to say a few words on the
topic “Together we can achieve more”. There are so many social and
environmental issues that have been curbed by the coming together of
like-minded people. For example, The Students Sea Turtle Conservation Network,
a voluntary group comprising students, have been working in the beaches of
Chennai since 1987, trying to conserve Olive Ridley, and create awareness about
the endangered sea turtles. The steps they had taken have given them pleasant
rewards. Many hatchlings can be seen running towards the sea thanks to the
efforts made ‘ by these volunteers.

There is Arun
Krishnamurthy, who initiated the campaign of cleaning various lakes across
India. Arun along with the organisation has been successful in cleaning at
least 39 lakes in the country. As a result, Arun was presented with the
prestigious Rolex Awards for enterprise in the year 2012 at Geneva. He was the
youngest to win this award. He couldn’t have achieved it without the support of
his organisation. These are only a few examples that show that “Together we can
achieve more”.


Giving instructions:

Here are a few instructions given by a Health Inspector to
a group of students, in order to prevent malaria and dengue. Complete the
series adding some more important instructions.

Do not allow water to stagnate in and
around your house.

Keep your surroundings clean.

Wear long- sleeved shirts / blouses
and long pants / skirts that cover your arms and legs.

Always use a bed-net impregnated with

Use mosquito repellants, carry it
wherever you go.

Don’t allow rainwater to gather in
discarded tyres and mud pots or coconut shells.

Keep all water containers or tanks

Cover your well also.


Now, write a set of 8 to 10 instructions
for the following situations:

1. A doctor instructing a patient regarding a healthy diet and
proper care after a surgery.

Don’t carry heavy weight for a few

You must avoid infections.

Cough and sneeze very’ carefully.

Limit salt intake.

Limit your sugar intake.

Avoid cool drinks and fast foods.

Eat a lot of fruits and vegetables,

You can take eggs, fish, legumes and
diary products.

Go for w alking early in the mornings.

Come for regular check-ups.


2. A traffic police personnel to the public, as to how to move
around in safety, in crowded public places during festival seasons.

Don’t allow’ your children to walk
ahead of you.

Make your children memorise your phone
numbers or give them an id card with your phone numbers written in it.

Ask your children not to speak or take
anything from a stranger.

Park your vehicles only in the open
area marked as parking area behind the police stations.

Use the entry path to the fair.

Go out only through the exit route
demarkated by the long rope.

In case of any problem or suspicion,
contact the nearest police booth and inform the officer there.

Make shift toilets are kept separately
for men and women at the right corner.

Don’t run in a crowd.

Walk with your family in a row’ of two
members keeping track of children.


3. A mother to her children, on safety measures to be taken before
leaving home on vacation.

Switch off all the lights.

See if the water containers have been
closed piverly.

If there is left-over food, dispose
them in the dust bin.

Ensure that there are no unwashed
vessels in the kitchen sink.

Make certain that all the pipes are
properly closed.

Check whether there are any w ashed
clothes lying in the balcony, if so. bring them inside.

Pack your bags with a check list of
what you need during the vacation. Each one must bring her/his own tooth brush,
soap, towels, etc.

Check if the gas cylinder’s regulator
is turned off.

Don’t forget to bring your mobile
phones. Stay connected.

Carry at least one Identity card as a



On the basis of your understanding of the given passage, make notes
in any appropriate format.

The Sherpas were nomadic people who
first migrated from Tibet approximately 600 years ago. through the Nangpa La
pass and settled in the Solukhumbu District, Nepal. These nomadic people then
gradually moved westward along salt trade routes. During 14th century, Sherpa
ancestors migrated from Kham. The group of people from the Kham region, east of
Tibet, was called “ShyarKhamba”. The inhabitants of ShyarKhumbu, were called
Sherpa. Sherpa migrants travelled through U and Tsang, before crossing the
Himalayas. According to Sherpa oral history, four groups migrated out of
Solukhumbu at different times, giving rise to the four fundamental Sherpa
clans: Minyagpa, Thimmi, Sertawa and Chawa. These four groups have since split
into the more than 20 different clans that exist today.


Sherpas had little contact with the
world beyond the mountains and they spoke their own language. AngDawa, a
76-year-old former mountaineer recalled “My first expedition was to Makalu [the
world’s fifth highest mountain] with Sir Edmund Hillary”. We were not allowed
to go to the top. We wore leather boots that got really heavy when wet, and we only
got a little salary, but we danced the Sherpa dance, and we were able to buy
firewood and make campfires, and we spent a lot of the time dancing and singing
and drinking. Today Sherpas get good pay and good equipment, but they don’t
have good entertainment. My one regret is that I never got to the top of
Everest. I got to the South Summit, but I never got a chance to go for the top.


The transformation began when the
Sherpa Tenzing Norgay and the New Zealander Edmund Hillary scaled Everest in
1953. Edmund Hillary took efforts to build schools and health clinics to raise
the living standards of the Sherpas. Thus life in Khumbu improved due to the
efforts taken by Edmund Hillary and hence he was known as ‘Sherpa King’.


Sherpas working on the Everest
generally tend to perish one by one, casualties of crevasse falls, avalanches,
and altitude sickness. Some have simply disappeared on the mountain, never-to
be seen again. Apart from the bad seasons in 1922,1970 and 2014 they do not die
en masse Sherpas carry the heaviest loads and pay the highest prices on the
world’s tallest mountain.


In some ways, Sherpas have benefited
from the commercialization of the Everest more than any group, earning income
from thousands of climbers and trekkers drawn to the mountain. While ,interest
in climbing Everest grew gradually over the decades after the first ascent, it
wasn’t,until the 1990s that the economic motives of commercial guiding on
Everest began. This leads to eclipse the amateur impetus of traditional
mountaineering. Climbers looked after each , other for the love of adventure
and “the brotherhood of the rope” now are tending to mountain businesses.
Sherpas have taken up jobs as guides to look after clients for a salary.
Commercial,guiding agencies promised any reasonably fit person a shot at


Origin and Development of Sherpas


The Sherpas-nomadic tribe-migrated 600 years ago-settled in Solukhumbu
District, of Nepal-14th Century migration westward from
Kham-ShyarKhamba-inhabitants Sherpa- 1 Oral history-four goups at different
times-Minyagpa, Thimmi, Sertawa and Chawa-now 20′ groups.

in isolation:

Little contact beyond mountains-AngDawa-76-year old former mountaineer-first
expedition to Makalu with Hillary-not allowed to top-poor salary no
equipments-danced, bought firewood-drank made merry-Today situation
bright-Sherpas-good pay-good equipment-no , entertainment.-One regret-never got
to the top of Everest.

Transformation: 1953
ascent-Hillary and Tenzing Norgay-Hillary built schools, healthcare
centres-Sherpas life in Khumbu better-Hillary-‘Sherpa king’.

life of Sherpas:
casualities-avalanches and altitude sickness-Sherpas die-died enmasse 1922-1970
and 2014 only-heavy loads-price death.

of Everest-a boon:
income-thousands of climbers-1990 onwards economic motive-traditional
mountaineering-love of rope-brotherhood gone-jobs as guides-good salary-healthy
Sherpas take a shot at Everest now-Guiding agencies help.



Kinds Of Sentences

(a) Simple sentence

Task 1

Pick out the finite verbs in the following sentences:

(a) You can solve this problem in
different ways.

(b) The professor has been working on
the last chapter of the book since March.

(c) Despite being a celebrity, Ravi
mingles easily with everyone.

(d) You must speak clearly to make
yourself understood.

(e) The chairman being away, the clerk
is unable to approve the proposal.

(J) Getting down from the car, the
Chief Guest walked towards the dais amidst applause.

(g) The old man struggled to walk
without support.

(h) In case of emergency, please
contact this number.

(0) The sun having set, the
temperature fell rapidly.

(j) But for your help, I could not
have completed the assignment.



(a) solve

(b) has been working

(c) mingles

(d) speak

(e) is

(f) walked

(g) struggled

(h) contact

(i) fell

(j) completed


Task 2

Read the following passage and identify the simple sentences.

Sunflowers turn according to the
position of the sun. In other words, they ‘ chase the light’. Have you ever
wondered what happens on cloudy, rainy days when the sun is completely covered
by clouds? If you think the sunflower withers or turns its head towards the
ground, you are completely mistaken. Do you know what happens? Sunflowers turn
to each other to share their energy. Learning from Nature, we too should
support and empower each other.



Sunflowers turn according to the
position of the sun.

they ‘chase the light’

Sunflowers turn to each other to share
their energy.


(b) Complex sentence

Task 1

at the following complex sentences. Circle the Main clauses and underline the
Subordinate clauses.

(a) (Nobody knows) when the power supply
will resume.

(b) (please tell me) what the time is.

(c) (The man) who directed the film
was my schoolmate.

(d) (I believe) that all men are
basically good.

(e) (No one knows) when he will


Task 2

Pick out the complex sentences in the following passage.

A man saw a lion in
the bush, as he was walking through the forest. He did not know what to do. He
was helpless. He was too scared to turn around and run. He just knelt down as
if he were getting ready to pray. He closed his eyes, thinking that the lion
would pounce on him anytime. Out of the comer of his eye, he saw the lion on
its knees too. Shocked, he asked the . lion what it was doing. The lion replied
that he was praying before he started his meal.


A man saw a lion in the bush, as he
was walking through the forest.

He did not know what to do.

He just knelt down as if he were
getting ready to pray.

He closed his eyes, thinking that the
lion would pounce on him anytime.

He asked the lion what it was doing.

The lion replied that he was praying
before he started his meal.


(c) Compound sentence

Task 1

Identify the two main clauses and conjunction in each of the
following sentences.

(a) It started raining suddenly and
people ran for shelter.

(b) Understand the concept well,
otherwise you cannot solve the problem.

(c) Fifty candidates appeared for the
interview, but only five were selected.

(d) Ramesh did not know Spanish, so he
wanted a translator.

(e) He is a good actor, still he is
not popular.


Main clauses: a) (i) It started
raining suddenly, (ii) people ran for shelter 

Conjunction: a) and


Main clauses: b) (i) Understand the
concept well, (ii) you cannot solve the problem    

Conjunction: b) other wise


Main clauses: c) (i) Fifty candidates
appeared for the interview, (ii) only five were selected     

Conjunction: c) but


Main clauses: d) (i) Ramesh did not
know Spanish, (ii) he wanted a translator  

Conjunction: d) so


Main clauses: e) (i) He is a good
actor, (ii) he is not popular     

Conjunction: e) still

Task 2

Pick out the compound sentences in the following passage.

The food we eat has
to be digested and then thrown out of the body. The air we breathe in, has to
be thrown out, to help us survive. But we hold negative emotions like
insecurity, anger and jealousy within ourselves for years. If these negative
emotions are not eliminated, the mind grows corrupt and diseased. Let us do
away with hatred and lead a healthy life filled with peace and joy.



The food we eat has
to be digested and then thrown out of the body.

Let us do away with hatred and lead a
healthy life filled with peace and joy.

Task 3

Complete the sentences choosing the right endings.


We were thoroughly disappointed –
since our team did not get a prize

Hardly had he stepped out  – when it began to rain

They wanted – to find out his address

Since we had run out of petrol – we could
not go further

The cause of his injury – was his
reckless driving


Conditional Clauses

Task 1

Read the following sentences and fill in
the blanks.

(a) If I _____ (be) a spider, I _____ (weave) webs.

(b) If Raj _____ (be) a sculptor, he _____ (make) beautiful idols.

(c) If Mary had an umbrella, she _____ (lend) it to me.

(d) Rex would have played with me, if he _____ (has) time.

(e) If I were you, I _____ (accept) this offer.

(f) We _____ (select) story books for kids, if we allot time for

(g) The Education Minister _____ (visit) our school tomorrow, if he goes
by this way.

(h) You will be rewarded by the wise, if you (stand) for truth.

(i) If my mother (know) of my poor performance in the exam, she will not
allow me to watch a movie.

(j) If I had won the lottery, I (donate) relief materials for the flood


(a) were, would weave

(b) were, would make

(c) would have lent

(d) had

(e) would have accepted

(J) can select

(g) will visit

(h) stand

(i) knows

(j) would have donated


Task 2

Rewrite the following sentences using ‘If’
without changing the meaning, e.g. Unless you go for a walk regularly, you cannot
reduce your weight. (Use ‘If) If you do not go for a walk regularly, you cannot
reduce your weight.


(a) Sindhu would not have won the world championship,
unless she had had single minded devotion.


Sindhu would not have won the world championship, if she had no single
minded devotion.


(b)You will not reach your goal, unless you chase your dream.


You will not reach your goal, if you don’t chase your dream.


(c)Unless we plant more trees, we cannot save our planet.


If we don’t plant more trees, we cannot save our planet.


(d)The rescue team would not have saved the victims unless they had
received the call in time.


The rescue team would not have saved the victims if they had not
received the call in time.


(e) The palace cannot be kept clean, unless we appoint more people.


The palace cannot be kept clean, if we don’t appoint more people.


(J)The portraits would not have been so natural unless the artist had
given his best.


The portraits would not have been so natural if the artist had not given
his best.


(g)The manager would not have selected Nithiksha unless she exhibited
good accounting skill.


The manager would not have selected Nithiksha if she had not exhibited
good accounting skill.


(h)The policeman would not have arrested the man unless he had violated
the rules.


The policeman would not have arrested the man if he had not violated the


(i)Mr Kunaal would not sponsor my higher education unless I studied


Mr Kunaal would not sponsor my higher education if I do not study well.


(j)Kavin will not stop flying kites unless he understands the risk
involved in it.


Kavin will not stop flying kites if he does not understand the risk
involved in it.


(k)Tanya would not know the answer unless she referred to the answer


Tanya would not know the answer if she had not referred to the answer


(l)My village cannot achieve 100 % literacy rate, unless the elders of
the village cooperate with the education department.


My village cannot achieve 100 % literacy rate, if the elders of the
village do not cooperate with the education department.




Origin and development of Sherpas


The Sherpas are a nomadic race who migrated to Nepal 600 years ago. They got
settled in Solukhumbu District of Nepal. In the 14th Century they migrated
westward from Kham to ShyarKhamba. This is where the Sherpas inhabited in four
goups viz., Minyagpa, Thimmi, Sertawa and Chawa.

in isolation:

Sherpas had little contact with the world beyond the mountains. Ang Dawa,
76-year old former Sherpa recounts his bitter memories. He could touch the
summit Makalu along with Hillary. He was never allowed to go to Everest.
Sherpas had meagre salaries. They danced Sherpa dance, drank and entertained
guests. They could buy firewood with their earnings. Now the scenario has
changed. They are well paid and given good equipments but left with no

Transformation: The attitude to
Sherpas changed after Tenzing Norgay and Hillary reached Everest in 1953.
Edmund Hillary is hailed as ‘Sherpa king’ for his initiative to build schools
for their children and healthcare centres too.

life of Sherpas:

Many Sherpas have died without a trace due to avalanches and altitude sickness.
Enmasse death is now ended after the 1922-1970 and 2014 incidents. They carry
heavy loads and pay with dearth for their survival.

1990, the commercialisation of mountaineering has started. Many mountain
guiding firms now employ Sherpas with good salary. A steady flow of
professional climbers and tourists ensure regular income. Now anyone with sound
physique can take a shot at the Everest.

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