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12th English – Lesson 2 – Prose – A Nice Cup of Tea

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12th English – Lesson 2 – Prose – A Nice Cup of Tea

You
would have seen lovely packets of tea on the shelves in supermarkets and shops.
Have you ever wondered how tea powder is obtained from the plants? Look at the
pictures and describe the process.

Answer:
The selected young Leaves are Plucked manually. Nowadays machines are avalaible.
It is then left for drying. The dried leaves are then powdered and packed.

 

1.Based on your understanding of the text, answer each of the
following questions in one or two sentences.

(a)
What seems ‘curious’ to the author?

Answer:
The absence of “Tea” in the recipes of cookery book is curious to the author.

 

(b)
Why does the author say that it is important to include a tea recipe in cookery
books?

Answer:
It is important to include tea in the cookery book because tea is one of the
mainstays of civilisation in England, Eire, Australia and New Zealand. Besides,
the nicest manner of making tea is a subject of violent disputes among
tea-loving nations.

 

(c)
Mention the countries in which tea is a part of civilization.

Answer:
It is one of the mainstays of civilization in UK, Australia, Eire and New
Zealand.

 

(d)
Which tea does the author prefer-China tea or Indian tea?

Answer:
The author prefers Indian tea to Chinese tea.

 

(e)
According to the author, what does the phrase ‘a nice cup of tea’ refer to?

Answer:
Nice cup of tea means Indian tea which makes one feel wiser, optimistic and
wiser.

 

(f)
What is the second golden rule in the preparation of tea?

Answer:
Second golden rule is that tea should be made in small quantities (i.e.) in a
teapot.

 

(g)
How does army tea taste?

Answer:
Army tea tastes of grease and whitewash.

 

(h)
Do tea lovers generally like strong tea or weak tea?

Answer:
Tea lovers generally love strong tea.

 

(i)
Why should tea be directly added to the pot?

Answer:
Tea should be added directly to the pot because imprisoning tea leaves in
strainers, muslin bags or other devices can be really harmful.

 

(j)
Why does the author prefer the cylindrical cup to a flat cup?

Answer:
Cylindrical cups (i.e.) breakfast cup holds more tea. But in the shallow and
flat cup, tea turns half cold before one starts drinking it.

 

 (k) What should be poured into the cup
first-tea or milk?

Answer:
One should pour tea first into the cup and then add milk to the desired level.
Thus one can regulate the amount of milk added to tea.

 

(l)
Why does the author advise removing cream from the milk?

Answer:
Cream should be removed before adding the milk to tea because creamy milk gives
a sickly taste to tea.

 

(m)
Does the author like drinking tea with sugar? Give reasons.

Answer:
Adding sugar to tea will deprive tea of its real taste. Misguided people who
take tea do it because of the sweetness and not because of the taste of tea.

 

(n)
Why does the author refer to himself as being in ‘a minority’?

Answer:
The author takes tea without sugar to relish the real taste of tea. But
majority of people take it with sugar. So, the author refers to himself as a
minority.

 

(o)
Whom does the author call ‘misguided people’? What is his advice to them?

Answer:
Some misguided people admit that they drink tea for stimulation and warmth.
They are not interested in tea. So, they add sugar to take the taste away. He
advises them to drink tea without adding sugar for a fortnight. They would
never again ruin the real taste of tea by adding sugar.

 

2. Based on your understanding of the text, answer each of the
following questions in four or five sentences.

(a)
What are the author’s views on China tea?

Answer:
China tea has virtues which are not to be despised, it is economic. One can
drink it without milk, but there is not much stimulation in it. One does not
feel wiser, braver or more optimistic after drinking it.

 

(b)
How does adding sugar affect the taste of tea?

Answer:
The author raises a pertinent question, “How can you call yourself a true tea
lover if you destroy the flavour of your tea by putting sugar in it?” He mocks
such people that they could add even salt and pepper in tea. Adding sugar to
hot water would give them an eqaul drink. So, the author disapproves of adding
sugar to tea to retain its flavour and taste.

 

(c)
Elucidate the author’s ideas about teapots.

Answer:
The teapot should be made of China or earthen ware. Silver or Britannia ware
teapot produce inferior quality tea. Enamel pots are worse. Though curiously
enough a pewter teapot, a rarity nowadays, is not so bad.

 

3. Answer each of the following questions in a paragraph of 100-150
words.

(а)
Summarise George Orwell’s distinctive ideas in “A Nice Cup of Tea”.

Answer:

Tea is one of the
mainstays of civilizations of UK, New Zealand, Australia and Eire. But, it is
not found in the recipes of cookery books. The nicest manner in which tea must
be prepared has become a subject matter of violent disputes among tea loving
persons even within a family. Indian tea fits in with the author’s description
of “nicest cup of tea” as it rejuvenates the drinker with wisdom, stimulation,
bravery and optimism. One cup of strong tea is equal to twenty weak ones. Best
tea is prepared by boiling tea leaves first and then adding milk to taste.

Milk first schools
and tea first schools still fight. Tea prepared in earthen pot or china ware is
good. The real flavour of tea should never be imprisoned by strainers. Consuming
tea leaves will not harm one’s health. Adding sugar to tea will naturally ruin
its real flavour and taste. The author advises misguided people who drink sweet
tea to desist from the practice for a fortnight. He guarantees them that they
would like the natural taste of tea and would never again add sugar to tea. Tea
should be taken in a cylindrical or breakfast cup to enjoy it. Shallow and flat
cups don’t retain warmth and taste for a long time.

 

(b)
Discuss how the essay reveals the factual points and the author’s personal
opinions on the preparation of tea.

Answer:

Facts found in the essay: There is no mention of tea in the
recipes cookery books except some sketchy ideas on the process of preparation.
Tea is one of the mainstays of civilization of UK, Australia, New Zealand and
Eire. The process of tea making is a subject matter of violent disputes. The
author has come up with eleven golden rules for preparation of a nice tea. Tea
pot should be made of china or earthen ware. In some countries, teapots are
fitted with little dangling baskets under the spout to catch stray tea leaves,
which are supposed to be harmful. One should use water that has been freshly
boiled. After making tea, one should stir it or better give the pot a good
shake, afterwards allowing the leaves to settle down. Some people don’t like
tea in itself. They only drink it in order to be warmed and stimulated and they
need sugar to take away the taste of tea.

The author’s opinion: The maimer of
making the nicest cup of tea is the subject matter of violent disputes. China
tea doesn’t give stimulation, wisdom, bravery or optimism. Indian tea means ‘a
nice cup of tea’. The army tea tastes of grease and white wash. The method of
swilling tea out with hot water is not a good practice. One strong cup of tea
is better than twenty weak ones. One can swallow considerable quantities of
tea. One should take the teapot to the kettle and not the otherway about. If
you use already boiled water or freshly brought to boil does not make any difference
in the taste of tea. One should remove cream off before adding the milk to tea.
By putting tea leaves in first and stirring it as one pours milk one can
regulate the amount of milk. Tea must be drunk without sugar for enjoying the
real flavour and taste.

 

(c)
What are the aspects that contribute to humour in the essay?

Answer:

The author claims
the best manner of making tea is the subject matter of violent disputes. He
compliments china tea for being economical but also says one does not feel
rejuvenated after drinking it. One doesn’t feel braver, wiser, more optimistic
or stimulated after drinking the Chinese tea. He says army tea tastes of grease
and white wash. In Britain there are two schools of thought (i.e.) milk first
school and tea first school (i.e.) one school claiming that milk must be poured
first and tea added later and another school claiming that tea must be poured
first and milk to be added next.

He says those who
take tea with sugar for its sweetness alone as misguided people. He says that
they could veiy well add salt and pepper to tea and drink it. He claims that
there are some mysterious social etiquette surrounding teapot. It is vulgar to
drink tea out of one’s saucer. There are some subsidiary uses of tea leaves
such as telling fortunes, predicting the arrival of visitors, feeding rabbits,
healing bums and sweeping the carpet.

 

4.
Based on your understanding of the text, complete the chart given below by
choosing the appropriate words or phrases given in brackets.

Golden Rules of Tea
Preparation

(add sugar, shaken,
milk, infused properly, strainers, without cream, taken to the kettle, small
quantities, China or earthenware, stirred, warmed)

12th english lesson 2 prose a nice cup of tea 1326850227 Tamil Mixer Education

Answer:

small quantities

China or
earthenware,

warmed

strainers

taken to the kettle

infused properly

stirred

shaken

without cream

add sugar

 

Vocabulary

(a) Find out the synonym of the underlined word in each of the
following sentences.

1.
But because the best manner of making it is the subject of violent disputes.

(a) agreements

(b) applauses

(c) conflicts

(d) discussions

Answer:
(c) conflicts

 

2.
________ tea is one of the mainstays of civilization in the country.

(a) a society in an
advanced state of social development

(b) a society that
has slow progress

(c) a society that
has no progress

(d) a society in an
average state of social development

Answer:
(a) a society in an advanced state of social development

 

3.________
that they only drink it in order to be warmed and stimulated.

(a) motivated

(b) discouraged

(c) passive

(d) admired

Answer:
(a) motivated

 

4.
________ under the spout to catch the stray leaves.

(a) fresh

(b) loose

(c) gathered

(d) harmful

Answer:
(b) loose

 

5.
One is liable to put in too much milk.

(a) likely

(b) certain

(c) eager

(d) responsible

Answer:
(d) responsible

 

(b) Find out the antonym of the underlined word in each of the
following sentences.

1. which are not to be despised.

(a) hated

(b) liked

(c) respected

(d) defeated

Answer:
(b) liked

 

2. One does not feel wise, braver or
more optimistic.

(a) opportunistic

(b) cheerful

(c) realistic

(d) pessimistic

Answer:
(d) pessimistic

 

3. Not the flat, shallow type…

(a) narrow

(b) wide

(c) deep

(d) direct

Answer:
(c) deep

 

4. Predicting the arrival of visitors…

(a) journey

(b) departure

(c) migration

(d) perusal

Answer:
(b) departure

 

5. but they are sufficient to show how
subtilized the whole business has become,

(a) enough

(b) suffocative

(c) inadequate

(d) submissive

Answer:
(c) inadequate

 

(c) Fill in the boxes with the correct answers. The first one has
been done for you.

Answer:

SI. No.Word with meaning and part of speechSentenceNoun/Verb/ Adj. formSentence
1Word : wise meaning : clever part of speech : adjectiveMy brother is wise.wisdomMy brother showed great wisdom in business.
2harmToo much sugar can harm one’s health in the longer run.harmHon’ble primie minister vowed that the harm (n) done to the fibre of democracy through Pulwama attack will not go unpunished.
3stimulateTea stimulates (v) one’s brain.stimulatePopulation explosion is a major stimulant (n) to the industrial development in China.
4argueMy brother is an argumentative (adj) scholar.argueYou may win an argument (n) but lose a friend
5strongLoyal and patriotic citizens alone make a country strong (adj)strongThe strength (n) of Mary Kom amazed fellow boxers.
6destroyProlonged conflict at the border could be destructive (adj) for both the sides.destroyPakistan continues to down play the destruction (n)caused by India’s preemptive attack on Balakot camp.

Listening

Listen
to the passage about the ‘Significance of Tea’ and answer the questions.

The Significance of Tea

Tea has been an
important beverage for thousands of years. It is consumed by two-thirds of the
world’s population. India is the second largest tea producer in the world after
China, although over 70 per cent of its tea is consumed within India. Tea has
been proved to offer numerous health benefits. Scientists and researchers have
found that drinking tea could reduce the risk of heart diseases. The
antioxidants in tea might prevent cancer. Regular tea drinking might help one in
lowering blood sugar and blood pressure. Tea might be an effective agent in the
prevention and treatment of neurological disorders. The consumption of tea
results in the strengthening of one’s teeth, bones and immune system. However,
drinking too much tea may prove to be harmful to one’s health. So, drinking tea
moderately could make one healthier. Researchers have confirmed the significant
overall health benefits of drinking tea.

Questions:

1. Which country is the largest tea
producer in the world?

Answer: China
is the largest producer of tea in the world.

 

2. ________ percent of the tea
produced in India is exported.

Answer: 30

 

3. What is the role of antioxidants in
tea?

Answer: The
antioxidants in tea might prevent cancer.

 

4. Drinking tea strengthens one’s
______ , and _____

Answer: teeth,
bones, immune system

 

5. How does drinking tea help a
diabetic?

Answer: Regular
tea drinking lowers blood sugar and thus helps a diabetic.

 

Speaking Activity

Read the story silently.

Once upon a time a
daughter complained to her father that her life was miserable and that she
didn’t know how she was going to make it. She was tired of fighting and
struggling all the ( time. It seemed that just as one problem was solved, another
one soon followed. Her father,a chef, took her to the kitchen. He filled three
pots with water and placed each on high flame. Once the three pots began to
boil, he placed potatoes in one pot, eggs in the second pot, and .ground coffee
beans in the third pot. He then let them boil, without saying a word to his
daughter. The daughter moaned and impatiently waited, wondering what he was
doing.‘

After twenty
minutes he turned off the burners. He took the potatoes out of the pot and
placed them in a bowl. He pulled the boiled eggs out and placed them in a bowl.
He then ladled the coffee out and poured it in a cup. Turning to her he asked.
“Daughter, what do you see?”

“Potatoes, eggs,
and coffee,” she hastily replied, “Look closer,” he said, “and touch the
potatoes.” She did and noted that they were soft. He then asked her to take an
egg and break it. After peeling off the shell, she observed the hard-boiled
egg.

Finally, he asked
her to sip the coffee. Its rich aroma brought a smile to her face. “Father,
what does this mean?” she asked. He then explained that the potatoes, the eggs
and coffee beans had each faced the same adversity – the boiling water.
However, each one reacted differently. The potato was strong, hard, and
unrelenting, but in boiling water, it became soft and weak. The egg was
fragile, with the thin outer shell protecting its liquid interior until it was
put in the boiling water. Then the inside of the eggs became hard. However, the
ground coffee beans were unique.

After they were
exposed to the boiling water, they changed the water and created something new.
“Which are you?” he asked his daughter. “When adversity knocks on your door,
how do you respond? Are you a potato, an egg, or a coffee bean? Things happen
around us, things happen to us, but the only thing that truly matters is what
happens within us. Which one are you?

This story shows
how people react to different situations in life. Some become weak and soft
like the potatoes and some others harden like the egg. The best way to face
difficulties is illustrated by the coffee beans which change their colour and
add flavour.

Now use these ideas
and prepare a speech on the topic ‘The importance of developing a positive
attitude’ and deliver the speech in the school assembly.

12th english lesson 2 prose a nice cup of tea 270705313 Tamil Mixer Education

The
importance of developing a positive attitude:

Respected Chief
Guest, dignitaries on the dias, teachers and my dear friends. I would like to
say a few words on the importance of developing a positive attitude.

Positive attitude
is necessary to succeed in life. A person with positive attitude has self
confidence and empathy. To highlight this I would like to quote some incidents
in the life of Amelia Earhart, the first woman pilot. She watched a pilot
taking off in his small plane. On the runway, he wanted to scare her, he drove
the small plane very close to her, she didn’t panic or run away. The plane
which whizzed past her seemed to invite her. She worked at various jobs such as
photographer, truck driver and stenographer. She managed to save 1000 dollars
for her flying lessons. In order to reach the air-field Amelia had to take a
bus to the end of line and walk 6 km. Earhart’s commitment to flying required
her to accept frequent hardwork. After proving her professional skills as a
lady pilot, she popularized flying and encouraged many girls to take pilot
training. She proved that women can also shine in the field which was till then
dominated by men.

The next best
example is the positive attitude of Abinandan, the pilot whose parachute
drifted into Pakistan and was taken a prisoner. Even while in the custody of
Pak military, he did not lose his confidence. He conducted himself bravely. He
did not fear, he believed in himself and in his country. He is back home as a
living legend spreading the message that positive attitude can help one
overcome any obstacle in life.

Look at the following non-verbal representation. Based on your
understanding and inference, write a paragraph on career trends in the next
decade.

12th english lesson 2 prose a nice cup of tea 1582781343 Tamil Mixer Education

Fastest growing occupations:

It is true that
most of us were not aware of the current demands in the job market 10 years
ago. As the emerging jobs and the required skill sets change all the
professional qualifications become irrelevant. In addition to the basic degree,
it is necessary to foresee the emerging trends in the job market. This
paragraph shows that the topmost opportunity to grow is in the field of wind
and solar energy. Technicians are needed in this sector. There is 100% chances
of placement for those who qualify themselves in operating wind mills,
designing, installing and maintenance of solar panels. Paramedical profession
is likely to grow exponentially.

It means that those
who pursue nursing, lab technician courses would get placed soon. Strikingly,
Mathematicians and Statisticians wall be next in huge demand as 70% growth is
for them only. As there is a boom in media services, T.V., radio, newspapers
and periodicals, there is a rising demand for media persons and journalists.
Against the common beleif, only 50% growth opportunity is there for
professionals qualified in software development. It is heartening to note that
cycle repairers and two wheeler mechanics will get opportunities next to
software engineers. Though lakhs of graduates do B.Ed. course the growth
opportunity in teaching jobs in colleges and schools is only 30%. The dismal
picture for sportsmen and coaches is discouraging. Only 20% growth is predicted
in placements for coaches and sportsmen. Finally only 10% growth is possible
for those who specialise in food analysis and working in hotels.

Task

Now
read the following article on the emerging career options in the modern era and
answer the questions that follow.

The students at the
higher secondary level in schools start thinking of suitable courses to take up
at the university level based on their aptitude, ability and interests. While
considering the higher education options, they should also plan the career path
they wish to take. In today’s complex job scenario, there is a mismatch between
demand and supply on one hand we have qualified professionals desperately
trying to find a job, while on the other hand, there are many professions that
need suitable talented employees. But such skilled employees are unavailable.
Therefore, the need of the hour is that students have an understanding of the
emerging career options.

Schools should take
the initiative to organise career guidance and counselling sessions for
students. However, students need to remember that to build a strong career,
they must understand the prospective field and their primary interest. It is
also important for students to focus on overall personality development and
hone their communication skills as these are important for the success of their
career. Students are also advised that in order to build a solid career
foundation, they need to qualify suitably by pursuing a degree course in the
chosen area of interest and also consider post graduate education.
Diploma/Short-term courses may help one find a job in the short run but may not
promise career progression. Rapid advancement in science and technology and
globalisation has widened the scope of career options in the twenty-first century.
Let us consider some popular careers.

Fashion
Designing:

The current
cosmopolitan and fashion-conscious wave that has taken over our country has
.opened up a huge arena for careers in fashion. These careers encompass
designing clothes, costumes, jewellery, footwear, wardrobe, costumes,
accessories and the like.

Culinary Arts:

With food and
cookery shows being a major trend across the world, culinary arts, a sub-domain
of the hospitality sector, has now become the most sought after career.

Paramedical
sciences:

In recent times,
there has been a great demand in the health care industry. Paramedical
professionals who support medical practitioners in areas such as optometry,
pathology, nursing, physiotherapy, and dentistry are much sought after.

Media,
Journalism and Advertising:

In this information
era, print and entertainment media have become a force to reckon with. This
arena has become a huge career playground because youngsters are attracted to
it as the exposure and reach is greater through such mass media. We notice that
radio and TV channels, internet companies and advertising agencies are
increasingly recruiting qualified professionals.

Hotel
Management:

The hotel industry
is the fastest growing industry in India. The number of international
travellers (both for business and leisure) is increasing. The hospitality and
service industry offers career options such as house keeping, front-desk
executives, tourism management, etc.

Sports
Management:

With multinational companies supporting
sports, careers in sports offer enormous scope. One need not be a player or an
athlete to shine in a sports career because the field of sports offers various
career options such as technical trainers, commentators, sports journalists,
dieticians, referees, etc. Conducting sports events successfully, organizing
the event laudably, preparing the ground for the event are all part of sports
management.

Questions:

(a) When
do students start thinking about their career path?

Answer:
At the end of plus two exams students start thinking about their career path.

 

(b) How
can students build a strong career?

Answer:
To build a strong career, students must understand the prospective field and
their primary interest. They need to qualify suitably by pursuing a degree
course in their chosen area of interest.

 

(c) What are the integral aspects of a
successful career?

Answer:
Personality development, communicative competence, required skill sets, keeping
abreast of technological advancements in addition to qualification in the
respective field are the integral aspects of a successful career.

 

(d) What is meant by ‘culinary art’?

Answer:
Cooking is called culinary art.

 

(e) Why is media a popular career option?

Answer:
Media is a popular carrer option because print and entertainment media have
become a force to reckon with. Radio, TV channels, internet companies and
advertisement companies are increasingly recruiting qualified professionals.

 

(f) Name some paramedical courses mentioned
in the passage.

Answer:
Optometry, pathology, nursing, physiotherapy and dentistry are some popular
paramedical courses.

 

(g) Why is the hotel industry seen as the
fastest growing in India?

Answer:
The number of international travellers visiting India is rapidly growing. This
has resulted in the exponential growth of hospitality and service industry. A
lot of career options such as house keeping, front-desk executives, tourism
management etc. are now open.

 

(h) Does one have to be a player to opt for
a career in the field of sports? Answer giving reasons.

Answer:
No. Sports journalists, dieticians, technical trainers and commentators need
not be sports persons.

 

(i) Pick one word from the passage which is
the opposite of ‘modern’.

Answer:
Traditional

 

(j) Which word in the passage means
‘composed of people from many parts of the country’?

Answer:
International travellers

Grammar

Prepositions

Task 1

Recall
your learning of basic prepositions and complete the sentences using the
prepositions given in brackets.

Recall2Byour2Blearning2Bof2Bbasic2Bprepositions2Band2Bcomplete2Bthe2Bsentences2Busing2Bthe2Bprepositions2Bgiven2Bin2Bbrackets Tamil Mixer Education

(a) The boy jumped
______ a narrow stream.

(b) Afsar will meet
me ______ Friday morning.

(c) The temple is
______ the bank.

(d) My friend will
meet me ______ his brother tomorrow.

(e) There is
usually a garden ______ a bungalow.

(f) Yuvan has been
studying well ______ childhood.

(g) A trekker
climbed ______ a mountain meticulously.

(h) There was a
skirmish ______ my brother and sister.

(i) The laudable
thoughts were apparent ______ many scholars in a conference.

(j) It is easy to
work ______ vthe aegis of visionary leader.

Answers:

(a) into

(b) on

(c) near/beside

(d) with

(e) in front of

(f) since

(g) over

(h) between

(i) among

(j) under

 

Task 2

Complete
the following passages using the prepositions given in brackets.

(among, for, at, to, in,)

(i) ______ When Lakshmi was (1) ______
school, she practised music from Monday (2) ______ Friday. She involved herself
(3) ______ the school orchestra. She was responsible (4) ______ conducting many
programmes. She was very popular (5) ______ her schoolmates, as she was kind,
friendly and helpful.

Answers:

at

to

in

for

among

(ii) (after, with, on, before, of, in, for)

(1) _____ the interview, Solomon was
confident (2) _____ getting the job. He knew that he was qualified (3) _____
the job. He was interested (4) _____ discharging his duty perfectly. The
interview panel was impressed (5) _____ his attitude and skills. So (6) _____
the interview, he was (7) _____ cloud nine.

Answers:

Before

of

for

in

with

after

on

 

Prepositional Phrases

Task 1

Underline
the prepositional phrases. The first two examples have been done for you.

(a) With
reference to
your advertisement in a local newspaper, I am applying for
the post of a salesman.

(b) The assignment will be completed in a few weeks.

(c) Ravi was appreciated by his teachers.

(d) We feel sorry for our mistakes.

(e) The boy studied well in spite of many obstacles.

(f) Our nation is famous for its glorious culture.

(g) We are proud of our children.

(h) My brother will return home in the evening.

 

Task 2

Fill
in the blanks with suitable prepositional phrase given in brackets.

(in favour of, in case of, according to, on
the whole, on account of, on behalf of, in spite of, instead of)

(a) ______ Kiran,
Rajesh may attend a programme.

(b) Many tourists
visited Ooty ______ heavy rains.

(c) Expressing
gratitude ______ others is common in a vote of thanks.

(d) ______ I had a
happy childhood.

(e) Our teacher
always acts ______ her students.

(f) ______ his
laziness, the boy remained passive for a long time.

(g) ______
Gandhiji, ahimsa means infinite love.

(h) ______ rain,
take an umbrella.

Answers:

(a) instead of

(b) in spite of

(c) on behalf of

(d) on the whole

(e) in favour of

(J) On account of

(g) According to

(h) In case of

 

Connectives or Linkers

Task 1

Choose
the appropriate linker from within the brackets and complete the sentences.

(a) I could not complete my paper in the
examination ______ (because, but) I was slow in answering the questions.

(b) It started raining, ______ (yet, so) we
could not play.

(c) ______ (As, If) I got up early, I
managed to reach school on time.

(d) ______ (Though/Whereas) he committed a
mistake, he apologised (and/since) promised that he would not repeat it.

(e) This is ______ (how/what) it must be
done.

(f) The vendor saw the train moving slowly
from the platform, ______ (therefore/until) he got

(g) I was not well, ______ (but/so) I did
not attend the class.

(h) (If, Although) ______ she can drive ,
she travels by bus.

(i) (If/Unless) ______ you register your
name, you cannot participate in the competitions.

(j) (As soon as/Besides) ______ my father
arrived home, I narrated the incident.

(k) Be quick to hear ______ (then/ and)
slow to speak.

(l) lam ______ (neither/either) an ascetic
in theory (nor/or) in practice.

(m) We fail to harness the rain water,
______ (consequently, nevertheless) we suffer.

(n) My brother will certainly clear GRE;
______ (yet/for) he works very hard.

Answers:

(a) because

(b) so

(c) As

(d) Though, and

(e) how

(f) therefore

(g) so

(h) Although

(i) Unless

(j) As soon as

(k) and

(l) neither, nor

(m) consequently

(n) for

 

Task2

Combine
the sentences and rewrite them using the words given in the brackets.

 

a) The well was deep. Therefore, the fox
could not get out of the well. (because)

Answer: The
fox could not get out of the well, because the well was deep.

 

b) The work was over. We went home. (when)

Answer: When
the work was over, we went home.

 

c) A library is a public place. We see a
number of books kept there for reading. (where)

Answer: A
library is a public place, where we see a number of books kept for reading.

 

d) The culprit was caught. Immediately, he
was taken to the police station. (as soon as)

Answer: As
soon as the culprit was caught, he was taken to the police station.

 

e) The boys were stealing mangoes from a
grove. At that time, the owner of the grove came in.(while)

Answer: While
the boys were stealing mangoes from a grove the owner of the grove came in.

 

f)  Artificially flavoured juices are hazardous to
health. Moreover, they lead to kidney problems. (and)

Answer: Artificially
flavoured juices are hazardous to health and they lead to kidney problems.

 

g) Adit has been promoted. Ranjan has been
promoted. (as well as)

Answer: Adit
as well as Ranjan has been promoted.

 

h) Caesar was declared emperor. The
conspirators killed him. (After)

Answer: After
caesar was declared emperor, the conspirators killed him.

 

Task 3

Fill
in the blanks with appropriate correlative conjunctions.

(a) She is _____ an understanding person
_____ everybody likes to be with her.

(b) Suraj owns _____ a typewriter _____ a
computer.

(c) Vani is _____ a good singer _____ a
good dancer.

(d) Amit did not know _____ his father met
his class teacher _____ not.

(e) I would _____ starve _____ beg.

Answer:

(a) such, that

(b) not only, but
also

(c) not only, but
also

(d) whether, or

(e) neither, nor

Article Writing

Task 1

The Government of Tamil nadu has imposed a
ban on the use of plastic. Effective implementation of this ban depends on
public awareness and individual responsibility.

 

Write
an article of 150 words for your school magazine to create an awareness of the
dangers posed by indiscriminate use of plastic. Expand the ideas given below as
notes.

Notes:

a. Introduction:

Plastic – synthetic
material – doesn’t decompose in soil

Inevitable role of
plastic – man’s day-to-day life

b. Human Health Hazard:

Leeching of plastic
into food – micro plastic entering food chain

Human body’s
inability to deal with this unnatural substance

Reaction of micro
plastic in human body and ill effects

c. Adverse effects on plants and animals:

Plastic particles
choking waterways – affect aquatic animals

Ingestion by
aquatic and terrestrial animals -blocking of intestines and respiratory
passages

d. Environmental Degradation:

Manufacturing
process and burning of plastics – pollute atmosphere

Plastic-non-biodegradable
– interferes with soil microorganisms – affects soil fertility

e. Conclusion:

Suggestions for
restricted use – alternatives for one-time use of plastics

Segregation of
plastic waste – for recycling

 

Use of Plastic in Daily Life

Introduction:

One of the greatest
threats to the sustainability of living environment is plastics. It is a
synthetic material. It is not biodegradable, it takes hundreds of years to
break down into small particles. Without knowing the long term harm plastic can
cause to the environment, plastic has entered all walks of life.

 

Human health Hazard:

AS hot food items
are packed in polythene bags, microplastic enters food chain. Besides, the
plastic waste that is scattered is eaten by stray animals and even huge whales
and they die eventually unable to digest them. The microplastic that goes into
the human body blocks intestine and also causes respiratory disorders. Reaction
to microplastic in human body leads to a lot of disorders and diseases.

Adverse Effects:

Plastic particles
choke the arteries of water ways and affect the lives of marine organisms as
well. Ingestion caused by plastic congestion leads to blocks in the intestine,
lungs and eventually death in animals.

Environmental Degradation:

Both the processing
involved in production of plastics and burning of broken plastic items result
in air pollution. The plastic fragments interfere with soil microorganisms and
accelerate infertility of the soil.

Conclusion:

People need to be
sensitized on the uses of safe disposal of plastic waste and not mix it with
organic waste. Besides, people must be encouraged to reduce, recycle and reuse
plastic instead of throwing them away.

 

Task 2

Urban living brings with it a possibility
of various communicable diseases.

Now write an article of about 150 words for
a leading newspaper on the various ways of maintaining personal hygiene and
sanitation in order to ensure a healthy living. Make use of the hints given
below.

Hints:

(a) Introduction –
‘Cleanliness is next to Godliness’ – brief explanation

(b) Personal hygiene:

Frequent washing of
hands and regular bathing

Brushing of teeth,
trimming of nails and hair

Wearing clean
clothes

(c) Keeping diseases at bay:

Avoid street food

Keep food
containers covered

Drink boiled water

Wash fruits and
vegetables in flowing water

(d) Keeping living areas, surroundings and
the environment clean:

Disposal of
domestic organic waste on a daily basis and hazardous waste in designated
places

Regular sweeping,
mopping and dusting

Disinfection of
toilets and bathing areas

Avoid littering of
public places

Avoid spitting,
urinating and defecating in public places

(e) Conclusion – hygiene – a collective exercise
– everyone’s involvement and practice, a must – ensure community health and
happiness – celebrate life

Cleanliness
is next to Godliness

Introduction:

“Cleanliness is
next to Godliness”. Those who keep themselves and their surroundings clean and
green live safely without the threat of infectious or contagious diseases.

Personal hygiene:

Regular bathing and
hand washing, brushing of teeth, combing the hair, paring the nails and wearing
neat dresses are indispensable for ensuring personal hygiene.

Keeping diseases at bay:

People who take
street food must avoid them because, the food items are exposed to dust and
disease spreading germs. Even at home we must ensure that the vessels
containing food items are well-covered with plates or lids. As water-borne
diseases are prevalent in cities and villages, one must drink only boiled
water. Farmers use pesticides and hence we should always wash the vegetables
and fruits in flowing water before using them for cooking or eating.

Keeping living areas, surroundings and the
environment clean:

We must dispose
organic waste on a daily basis. Hazardous waste must be disposed in the
designated places only. Littering in public places must be avoided. One must
have the civic sense and refrain from spitting, urinating and defecating in
public places.

Conclusion:

Hygeine is a
collective responsibilty of all people. For ensuring the health and happiness
of the community, everyone must get involved in maintaining cleanliness in
their surroundings.

 

Suggested Topics:

Importance of Physical Exercises / Sports and Games

Introduction:

A sound mind in a
sound body goes the old saying. It holds good in modem times. Physical
exercises play a vital role in keeping the body strong.

Kinds of exercises:

The simplest form
of exercise is walking. Today people use two wheelers powered by petrol and
biologists fear that after a hundred years babies maybe bom without legs using
the theory of selection. As free bus pass is given, students have stopped
cycling or walking even a kilometer a day.

Some do cycling on
a regular basis and keep fit. Some go to the gym and do body building
exercises. But everyone’s body’ constitution may not permit long hours of work
out in a gym.

By playing
traditional games like kho-kho, kabbadi, etc. also can maintain good health. In
villages, climbing a huge tall oiled smooth pole is a contest during festivals.
People stand in circles on whose shoulders young ones climb up to take the
prize money kept on the top of the pole. Playing various games such as Tennis,
cricket, basket ball, volleyball, foot ball can also give sufficient physical
exercises. Students can partake in athletic events and sports to get enough
exercise.

Conclusion:

Students should
avoid playing games in the phone and watching domestic poison (i.e.) TV
serials. Playing and doing physical exercises in the open air will tone up
their muscles and build their immune system against diseases.

Travel and its Benefits

Introduction:

Travelling is a
great teacher. Augustine says, “the world is a great book of which those who
don’t travel read only a page.” Reading about Kashmir or Kodaikanal may not be
as fascinating as travelling by car or train and drink and appreciate the
beauty of nature.

Heresay
vs first hand experience:

Reading about Ooty
is less interesting than visiting Ooty in person. Seeing the flower show when
Ooty is in full bloom is equal to seeing it in hundred movies. Walking around
Botanical gardens, gazing at the valley below from Doddabetta peak, enjoying
the boat ride dipping the hands into the chill waters and looking at the Pykara
hydel power project are all scenic beauties one etches in one’s memories for
long.

Advantages
of travelling:

Life is a book full
of surprises. As we travel we meet many new and interesting people. We learn
about new cultures, life styles, superstitions and rituals followed in
different communities across the globe.

Travelling-testing
ground of skills:

During travels, one
may face unforeseen emergencies. One’s latent skills of problem-solving come to
limelight during such emergencies. One would also be amazed to learn how total
strangers bestow kindness he/she may not have expected in crises.

Conclusion:

Travel broadens
one’s outlook of life. It is also a means of education. It is one of the
precious gifts of life. One must travel far and wide to enjoy life-transforming
experiences which can never be had inside the four walss of classrooms or home.

Water Conservation

Introduction:

Water is the elixir
of life. Earth is the only lonely planet having life-supporting water in
abundance. The earth is covered with 71% water. But potable water is only
around 1%.

Need
to conserve water:

Due to erratic
rainfall caused by deforestation, water tables are fast drying up. Global
warming is adding to the problem. Even underground water is sucked up by
sunlight. Tamil Nadu Government is very strict about water harvesting.
Permission to build is given only after ensuring water harvesting facility is
added in the blue print.

War
for water:

In olden days, wars
were waged on rare beauties and gold. But in modem times, the countries which
possess large amount of drinking water will become envious target of water
hungry nations. Abdul Kalam, the rocket scientist, predicted, for a water can,
people would go to the extent of murdering fellow humans. Already interstate
quarrels have started over sharing of river waters. On the one hand, the
surplus rain water goes to ocean and during summer, there is scarcity of water.
There are no check dams on the path of rivers. There is greedy robbery of sand.
River beds are becoming moist-free desert-like plains.

Water
conservation:

When Israel is able
to do agriculture profitably with very little rains, we struggle to ensure
lucrative prices for farm products. Many states in India have failed to
conserve rain water where surplus rain water rushes to ocean through flood
canals.

Conclusion:

Unwise use of water
is rampant across the country. Through leaky pipes good water goes down the
drain. It is the collective responsibility of citizens and municipal
authorities to conserve water and sustain life on the earth.

 

Child Labour

Introduction:

Child labour has
emerged as a major issue in India. To address this social issue, NGOs, parents,
social activists and society have to join hands to attack this issue. There is
a legal provision to safeguard exploited persons beyond the age of 16. But
young children don’t get the advantage of legal cover.

Causes
of child labour:

In many developing
countries, child labour is rampant. The prominent reasons are sibling care,
poverty and lack of schooling opportunities. In developing countries 50% of
school aged population (in the age group of 5-14) are engaged in child labour.

Distribution
of child labour:

In farming
industry, child labour is rampant. In labour intensive cotton industries, brick
laying industries and in the informal sector we find a large number of children
employed. In small scale industries like weaving, match works, fire crackers,
children are engaged as bond labourers to lessen the financial burden of
parents.

Conclusion:

It is a cruel
paradox that instead of eliminating child labour, we have NCLP, non-formal
schools to give education to child labourers. Main streaming is not a success
due to inadequate monitoring. It is comforting to learn that international
organization have taken up the cause of fighting against child labour. All must
realize that healthy children are the real future of India. Child labour is retarding
the progress of the children and the nation.

 

Mobile Phone – Advantages and Disadvantages

Introduction:

Mobile phone is a
palm held device which has revolutionised the world of communication. A mobile
phone does not require fixed landline and makes two way communication easy and
affordable. Telegram department had to be closed due to the lightning speed
with which messages could be sent orally or through SMS.

Mobile
functions and advantages:

A mobile phone can
be used for watching cricket, movie or just listen to news. Students now google
for collecting information for their assignments and projects. A recent survey
says 50% of youth read newspapers only through their android phones. The habit
of reading books or dictionaries is falling due to quick access to information
via mobile and internet services. Through Ola and Uber apps one can summon a
call taxi or even order food from Uber eats or Ola food through these apps for
a cheap cost. Railway and flight tickets can be booked online.

’ Memorable events
can be frozen in photos or videos and saved in the phone itself. Money transfer
is now possible through using PayTM, Bhim app or google money app. As many
online newspapers are freely available, people save money.

Big Bazaar sells
even vegetables through phone. Flipkart and Amazon apps help one to place order
for any home appliances at competitive prices.

Disadvantages:

Social websites
such as whatsapp, twitter and facebook keep young ones continuously engaged and
crazy for likes. Sometimes evil doers access valuable information and exploit
women and children. Sharing vital information, photos, videos, etc. with total
strangers can jeopardize one’s honour and life too. Students who get addicted
to video games and watching explicit content waste their time and energy and
dropout of schools.

Conclusion:

Mobile phone is a
technological marvel. Similar to any new technology, it has its fascinating
traps. One must use mobile phones judiciously and stay out of harm and
disgrace.

 

Consumerism – Wants and Needs

Introduction:

Consumer has the
right to decide what he needs and what he wants to buy. But due to the
explosive non-stop advertisements in the television, theatres, print media and
in hand bills, the consumer is often influenced to buy what he actually does
not need.

Problem
of plenty:

A good trader needs
to find a balance between both the need and want of the consumer. As many malls
have sprung up in big cities and departmental stores in small towns, the
consumer’s rights to choose what he needs are eroded. There’s a problem of
plenty.

Astute traders Vs
gullible customers:

As seasons change,
consumers want to change the design of their jewels, wardrobes, etc. Astute
traders dump a lot of varieties and under the pretext of discount and offers
sub-standard commodities are sold to the consumers.

Conclusion:

The rules of
business have changed widely now. Each consumer is different. Traders who are
able to recognize the need of the consumer and supply custom-made or tailored
commodities can only satisfy their wants and stabilize their business in the
competitive market.

 

Value of Education

Introduction:

Education helps
young ones acquire essential knowledge and skills. In modem times, teacher
alone is not the dispenser of knowledge. School alone is not the abode of
learning. There are many avenues from where students can learn freely.

Value
of education:

Education teaches
students to understand the fast changing world and problems of modem society
and also evolve solutions in unconventional ways. Education shapes the destiny
of a nation. It enables young ones to become a productive member of the
civilized society and equips them with the required skill sets to seek jobs and
shine in them too.

Education teaches
us how to meet day to day challenges and overcome obstacles. It helps us leam
how to become a well-rounded personality and perpetuate Indian culture.
Education teaches young citizens non-negotiable rules in life and manners too.
It lays the foundation stone for the future of children. It guides young ones
to lead disciplined life and gives them with skills to earn jobs which would
pay them well.

Conclusion:

India has to invest
more in quality education in our country because education is the prerequisite
to the nation’s prosperity and modernization of the country.

 

Value based Education

Introduction:

Education needs to
ennoble human beings. It should teach sensitivity to the social issues which
affect the progress of the nation. Education must sensitize students of the
sweeping changes occuring around them in modem times.

Importance
of value-based Education:

Education without
values seems rather to make man a mere clever devil. Nelson Mandela once
rightly said, “Education is the most powerful weapon through which you can
change the world.” The aim of education should not be confined only to impart
knowledge but to inculcate values in young and impressionable minds.

Rote
memory vs value based education:

Currently, rote
memorization is largely emphasized. Factual information needs to be mastered
and not memorised and regurgitated during examinations. This system fails to
give any opportunity to think outside the box. As we are moving towards
becoming a knowledge economy, moral values have taken a back seat. Juvenile
delinquency is threatening the value system of the country. The students may be
intelligent and smart but they lack empathy. The schooling system has failed to
inculcate the right values among children. It is unfortunate that neither
teachers nor the students focus on values for it is not graded. Virtue should
never ask for a reward because it is a reward in itself. India would regain its
glory when students inculcate values like honesty, patriotism, compassion and
hardwork.

Conclusion:

Education is a life
long process. In real life, it is to be translated into qualities of
truthfulness, self-confidence, compassion to all living things, and integration
of mind, body and brain. In short, value based education has the capacity to
transform the corrupt mind into a very innocent, healthy, natural, fresh mind
embellished with agape love.

 

Essay Writing

Task 1

Write an essay of about 200
words each.

1. The profession you would like to choose

Introduction:

People do have
dreams right from their childhood days about their career. Albert Einstein was
asked in his death bed, “what did you want to become in your life?” Tears
trickled down his eyes and he said, “I wanted to be a plumber. But my
vocational instructor drove me out saying . That I don’t have the required
skills.

Changing
ambitions of children:

Children keep
changing their ambitions as their role models change as they grow older and
wiser. But I have decided to become a pilot in Indian force. I want to conquer
the skies and fly faster than sound. I know it is a challenging career. After
the Pulwama attack, the heroic role played by the twelve pilots of Indian Air
force that struck at the hearts of terrorists in Pakistan . destroying the
hideouts and training schools of terror impressed me. I do foresee the threat
to life. Abinandhan, wing commander was released after India’s persistant
diplomatic efforts across the world. I was overwhelmed by the united voice of
India seeking Abinandhan, every Indian citizen was praying for the safe return of
the sky warrior who had shot down F-16 with MiG 21 Bison, an ageing aircraft.

His composure under
the custody of Pak army really motivated young people to stay calm during
crisis. In Tamil Nadu two soldiers who died in Pulwama attack were mourned by
the whole state. Transcending barriers of caste, religion and political
alliances, all came to console the family members. Unkown people started
donating their life-time savings. So, I have made up my mind to serve the
Indian Airforce. I want to live and die as a jawan with legitimate pride. Only
in the armed forces, I find dignity in both service and in death.

Conclusion:

People pursue
various kinds of careers for the sake of monetary aspects. But I choose
airman’s career so that I will become a part of the pride of Indian armed
forces.

 

2. The importance of a balanced diet

Introduction:

This is a pertinent
topic when the young children are becoming early victims of obesity. Most of
the children in cities have got addicted to fat-saturated foods such as pizza,
burger, and other fast foods which cause cholesterol. Eating balanced diet
(i.e.) nutritious food is crucial if one wants to lead a healthy life style.

Balanced
diet:

Balanced food is
not about having the right kind of foods alone, but eating them at the right
time in the right proportions. Millets and nutritious food items are available
in plenty even in rural areas.

Intake
of liquids:

Fluids are quite
indispensable for the human body to lead a healthy life style. Scientists claim
that 80% of the human body is filled with water. It is also a co-factor in many
of the metabolic activities in the body leading to metabolic changes. At least
two to three litres of water is essential for everyone. This can be achieved by
restricting the intake of coffee and tea and consuming water as frequently as
possible.

Fresh
vegetables and fruits:

Regular intake of
fruits and vegetables will invariably avoid many health disorders. It is
believed that a balanced diet must contain all five tastes (i.e.) bitter,
pungent, sour, sweet and salt. The avoidance of processed or tinned food is
good because processed foods are deprived of their nutritional values. Transfat
substances in processed and junk foods is harmful to us.

How
to eat:

One must chew the
food one consumes to ensure easy digestion. One must eat only what is required.
Over eating will result in obesity and over weight. One can start diet as per
the directions of one’s family doctor or dietician.

Conclusion:

If one does not
take balanced diet with green vegetables and fibre, one may have to spend a lot
to recover the lost health.

 

3. A memorable journey

Introduction:

One learns a lot
about the world and life during travels. One gets to meet new people and find
new cultures. I had an opportunity to visit Daijeeling along with my uncle who
is working . there.

 

Darjeeling,
the Queen of hill stations:

Daijeeling is a
mesmerising hill station located in West Bengal. While travelling in the
amazing toy train I was transported to heaven. The lush green hills, beautiful
serene monasteries, tea plantations and the clouds that played hide and seek
with the Sun really dazzled me.

I spoke to the
natives. They understood Hindi and Bengali. Fortunately my uncle knew Bengali
and he could translate what people said in English and Tamil which broke the
barrier of language. There were frequent mild rainfalls which ran chills down
my spine. I can never forget the travel in toy train from Jalpaiguri to
Daijeeling. The tracks rise from sea level to 7500 ft in just about 70 km. In
order to overcome the gradients, the train used zig zag reverses and loops.
Batasia loop is the most famous loop with the figure of eight. As the train
slowly went for seven hours, I could drink the beauty of nature and take in the
fresh air of the green forests.

I went to
Kangchenjunga the third highest mountain in the world with an altitude of 8586
metres above sea. I felt like standing on top of the World. Sunrise from the
tiger hill was the most fascinating scenes I can never forget in my life.

Conclusion:

I strongly
recommend that all my friends must visit Daijeeling once in their life.

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