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12th English – Lesson 1 – Prose – Two Gentlemen of Verona

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12th English – Lesson 1 – Prose – Two Gentlemen of

1. Answer the following questions in one or two sentences each
based on your understanding of the story.

Who did the narrator meet at the outskirts of Verona?

The Narrator met Nicola and Jacopo at the outskirts of Verona.


Why did the driver not approve of the narrator buying fruits from the boys?

The fruit vendors were shabby in their appearance. So, the driver did not
approve of the narrator’s idea of buying fruits from them.


The boys did not spend much on clothes and food. Why?

The boys had to save every penny towards the weekly medical bill of their
sister Lucia. So, they did not spend much on the clothes and food.


Were the boys saving money to go the States? How do you know?

No, the boys did not save the money to go to States. The boys themselves admit
that they have other plans.


Why did the author avoid going to Lucia’s room?

The author did not want to disturb the privacy of the family party and the
sense of pride the boys had in supporting their elder sister.


What was Lucia suffering from?

Lucia was suffering from tuberculosis of the spine.


What made the boys join the resistance movement against the Germans?

The boys hated the Germans who had destroyed their town and killed their
father. So, they joined the resistance movement against the Germans.


What made the boys work so hard?

They did not want charity from the hospital. The determination to save the life
of their sister made the boys work hard.


Why didn’t the boys disclose their problem to the author?

The little boys did not want sympathy but any work which would fetch them
money. So, they did not disclose their problem to the author.


2. Answer the following questions in three or four sentences each.

Describe the appearance of Nicola and Jacopo.

One boy had worn Jersey and cut-off khaki pants. The other had a shortened army
tunic gathered in loose folds about his skinny frame. They had tangled hair and
dark earnest eyes.


What were the various jobs undertaken by the little boys?

The little boys sold wild berries. They shined shoes. They showed visitors
through the town to Juliet’s tomb and other places of interest. They even
booked a seat for the narrator in a theatre and got American cigars too.


How did the narrator help the boys on Sunday?

The author took the boys in his car to a tiny village called Poleta,set high
upon a hill. He drove the car up to a large red-roofed villa. The boys asked
the author to come there after an hour and went inside.


Who took the author to the cubicle?

Attained nurse who was very familiar with Nicola and Jacopo took the narrator
in. She led him through a cool, tiled vestibule into the hospital, the villa
had become. She left him at the door of a little cubicle from where he can
watch unseen Nicola and Jacopa chatting with their ailing sister.


Describe the girl with whom the boys were talking to in the cubicle.

Lucia was a girl of about twenty. She was propped up on pillows wearing a
pretty lace jacket. Her eyes were soft and tender.


Recount the untold sufferings undergone by the siblings after they were
rendered homeless.

The boys and their sister were thrown in the streets. Lucia had to give up her
singing lessons. They had suffered horribly from near starvation and exposure
to the cold winter. Lucia developed tuberculosis of the spine. The boys built a
home from the rubbles. They had to admit Lucia in a nursing home. To pay the
weekly medical bill, they worked from dawn to midnight doing odd jobs eating
very little.


The narrator did not utter a word and preferred to keep the secret to himself.
Why? Substantiate the statement with reference to the story.

After coming out of the hospital the boys sat beside the narrator. Throughout
the 30 km ride, they did not say a word. The narrator did not say a word
because he wanted the boys to feel that their sacrifice and sufferings remained
a secret. However, the narrator was touched by the devotion of the little boys.


3. Answer the following in a paragraph of 100-150 words each.

What was the driving force that made the boys do various jobs?

In the war-hit Verona everything was difficult. Food had become scarce and
dear. The hospital which offered to treat Lucia was forced to charge a weekly
fee. Work was scarce. But the boys were determined to save the life of their
beloved sister. After the untimely death of the father in the war, the two
little boys Nicola and Jacopo took the responsibility of earning money by doing
all odd jobs for defraying the medical expenses for their sister on their
tender shoulders. They spent very little on their food and clothes. The driving
force behind their selfless sacrifice and hard work from dawn to midnight was
the love they had for their elder sister. They wanted her to get well soon and
become an accomplished singer in life. Once you set a goal far above your
capacity but work hard ceaselessly, you are bound to achieve it.


How was the family affected by the war?

Before the war, Nicola and Jacopo’s widowed father was a well-known singer. He
was killed in the early part of the war leaving Lucia, his daughter behind to
take care of the little boys. Shortly after a bomb destroyed their home. The
three children were thrown into the streets. They had always known a
comfortable and cultured life. Lucia was training to become a singer. Suddenly they
were uprooted from their cozy life. They had suffered from near starvation and
exposure to cold winter. The home they rebuilt from the rubbles was not
weather-proof. The boys joined the secret services of resistance moment as they
hated Germans. When they returned home after the war, they found their sister
affected by tuberculosis of the spine. They persuaded a private hospital to
take Lucia in. Every week they worked hard to pay for their sister’s medical
expenses. To achieve it they had to sacrifice a lot.


Write a character sketch of Nicola and Jacopo.

Nicola was 13 and Jacopo only 12. They were brothers. They were tanned, had
tangled hair and dark earnest eyes. Though they were just kids, they were
serious about their work. They did hundreds of errands for the tourists. They
were found doing brisk business shining shoes or selling wild berries. They had
the skill to find seats in theater for the tourists and also guide the tourists
through many important sites of the city of Verona such as Juliet’s tomb.
Jacopo was lively as a squirrel. Nicola’s smile was steady and engaging yet in
their innocent faces one could find seriousness far beyond their years. What
struck one was the extreme willingness of both the boys to work. Under the
scorching Sun, they hawked newspapers. When the narrator enquired what they did
with the money they earned as they were not spending it on clothes or food or
saving it for emigrating to America, Nicola coloured but he did not reveal the
secret family adversity. Both are gentlemen because they did not want any one’s


(d) What
message is conveyed through the story ‘Two Gentlemen of Verona’?

Adversity is a touchstone of virtue. Both the little boys resemble tea leaves.
Their best essence comes to limelight when they find themselves in hot waters.
But they don’t complain. One does not give up on family relations when
misfortune strikes. The bond becomes strong as the bond demands selfless
sacrifice. The nobility of human life emerges from the precious lessons one
learns from the supreme sacrifices of Nicola and Jacopo. One who shoulders the
responsibility of taking care of the loved ones, irrespective of age, is an
exemplary gentleman worthy of emulation. The primary motivational force of an
individual is to find meaning in life. Both the little boys had a specific
purpose for their life. They had made up their minds to do what ever work
possible to earn money to save their sister and restore her singing career.


(e) Justify
the title of the story ‘Two Gentlemen of Verona’.

In the story ‘Two gentlemen of Verona’, the two orphan boys Jacopo and Nicola
work immensely and exhaustively. They shine shoes, sell newspapers, run errands
and show tourists round the city. They take only figs and black tea as food.
They save every penny for the medical treatment of their sister Lucia who is
suffering from Tuberculosis of the spine. The narrator himself admits that
their willingness to work impressed him. They demonstrate an unusual devotion
to their work. The objective of their hard work and purpose behind their
half-starved daily routine is not known to many in Verona. Anyone may polish
shoes or hawk newspapers but it is the magnanimity of heart and nobleness of
purpose that actually determines whether one is a real gentleman or a
hypocrite. Hence the title ‘‘Two gentlemen of Verona” is justified.


(f) Adversity
brings out the best as well as the worst in people. Elucidate this statement
with reference to the story.

Whenever confronted by an adversity, there is a psychological reaction among
most of us. Either fight or flee from it. Even adults run away from crisis and
seek asylum or support of others. We find hordes of people, when living becomes
difficult, migrate to other places to survive. In the face of adversity, even
educated people turn to evil ways. They worked hard from dawn to midnight. They
did any job that came their way. They shined shoes, hawked newspapers, sold
wild fruits and took the people round the city. They spent very little on their
food and clothes. Every week they cycled to Poleta and paid Lucia’s medical
bill systematically. In this story, the nurse of the private hospital reveals
the bitter truth about the economy of Verona. Jobs are scarce. There is
inflation. It is difficult to buy food with limited money. When the hospital
laid the condition that the little boys Nicola and Jacopo should pay the weekly
medical bill for their sister Lucia’s treatment for tuberculosis, they did not
back off or give up. Their best qualities came out during adversity. Like tea
leaves, they gave their best while in hot waters.


(g) Which
character do you like the most in the story and why?

Answer: Of
all the characters, I like Nicola who is a 13 year old boy (i.e.) one of the
two gentlemen of Verona. Though he is small, he is mature beyond his years.
Like John Keets, he hated sympathy and self-pity. He does not want any favour
except the opportunity to work. He has an engaging smile. He and his brother
Jacopo were hardworking and devoted to their sister Lucia. He has seriousness
far beyond his years. Even when kindly enquired by the narrator as to why he
was spending little on clothes and food, he doesn’t open up. He colours deeply
and grows pale. He even avoided the eyes of the narrator. When his
squirrel-like brother requested the narrator to send them in his car to Poleta
on Sunday, Nicola doesn’t like it. He glares at his brother in vexation and
says, “we couldn’t think of troubling you sir.” He wins the respect of all
readers because of his maturity, willingness to work and devotion to his


Read the following words taken from the story. Give two synonyms and one
antonym for each of these words. Use a dictionary, if required.

S. No.WordSynonymsAntonym
2disapproveexpress dislikeobject toapprove

1. Given
below is a list of common confusables. Distinguish the meaning of each pair of
words by framing your own sentences.


emigrate (leaving homeland) – immigrate (come to live permanently in a foreign

Priyanka Chopra does not wish to emigrate
to UK where her husband is living. Candidates who wish to immigrate to USA are
increasing in number every year.


beside (at the side of) – besides (in addition to)

I remember keeping my watch beside my

Besides supporting terrorist outfits within
its borders, Pakistan claims innocence in the Pulwana attack.


judicial (relating to justice) – judicious (wise/prudent)

The fraudsters who swindled the money of an
IT personnel in Navalur through ATM were taken into judicial custody.

Kalpana reacted judiciously when she
realised that a mobile thief was standing next to her.


eligible (Adj.- satisfying the appropriate conditions) – illegible (Adj.- not
clear enough to be read)

Even at the age of 30, Vinod is an eligible
bachelor for the manager post.

Priya’s handwriting is illegible.


conscience (a person’s moral sense of right and wrong) – conscious (being aware
of) “Conscience makes cowards of us all”, said Shakespeare.

The lorry driver was conscious of the
dangers involved in carrying the explosives in his truck.


industrial (relating to industry) – industrious (diligent/hardworking)

Perungudi is an industrial block.

Man should be as industrious as ants and


eminent (famous) – imminent (something bad likely to happen very soon)

Every eminent scientist has an unseen past
in which he must have struggled to prove his theory or inventions to the world.

Environmentalists are apprehensive of the
imminent earthquakes in mega multipurpose projects’ catchment areas as they
fall under seismicity-prone areas.


illicit (adj- illegal) – elicit (v – to evoke a response)

Two hundred miners perished after consuming
illicit liquor in Bihar.

The police personnel tried to elicit the
truth about the murder of the school girl in a pump set from the arrested
relative and three other culprits.


prescribed (set down rules) – proscribed (prohibited)

The students were advised to follow the
guidelines prescribed by the Directorate of Government Examinations.

The tourists were proscribed from taking
selfies from the suicide point in Kodaikanal.


affect (to influence something or someone) – effect (result/impact of

The athlete did not imagine that a steroid
shot might affect his sports career adversely.

The rising number of cybercrimes proves the
adverse effect of educated unemployment.


aural (relating to hearing) – oral (verbal)

In primary schools, teachers must assess
the aural skills of children.

There must be a fool-proof mechanism to
assess the oral skills of students at the secondary level especially in


born (related to birth) – borne (carried by)

Divya was not born with a silver spoon in
her mouth.

The entire village paid homage to army
personnel, U. Saravanan’s body which was borne in a decorated coffin by
military soldiers and homeguards.


2. Fill
in the blanks with suitable homophones or confusables


(c) Give the meanings of the following phrasal verbs and frame
sentences using them.

1. cut
off: block the way

Answer: The village was
cut off due to floods.


2. come
upon : to meet or encounter unexpectedly

Answer: I came upon an old
friend in the street today.


3. put
out: extinguish

Answer: The firemen put
out the fire after a stmggle of six hours.


4. draw
up : halt

Answer: Ram drew up his
car on seeing the red signal.


5. pass
out: become unconscious

The college student who fell down from the bus passed out and an ambulance was


6. take
off: leave the ground

The plane took off two hours late from Delhi due to fog.


7. turn
away : move one’s face away

Whenever I find able-bodied men and women beg in the trains, I turn away.


8. stand
by : ready to substitute

The eleventh player was standing by to play if any player gets hurt or a
substitute is needed.


9. bank
on : rely on confidently

We can always bank on our English teacher whenever a debate is announced.


Prefixes and Suffixes

Read the list of words formed by adding suffixes.







two derivatives from each of the following words by adding prefixes and

Word – Prefix – Suffix

patient – impatient – patiently

honour – dishonour – honourable

respect – disrespect – respectable

manage – mismanage – management

fertile – infertile – fertility

different – indifferent – differently

friend – befriend – friendly

obey – disobey – obedience

Listening Activity

Floods are an
inevitable natural disaster which can occur in any part of the world. Floods
can prove all the more disastrous in localities, where population density is
high. Preparation for Disaster Management has become imperative for any city,
town or village during monsoons. The Government Department entrusted with
Disaster Management makes periodic announcements about the precautions to be
taken whenever floods are anticipated.

Now, you are going
to listen to the cautionary instructions that are given to the general public
living in flood-prone areas. Listen carefully and complete the following sentences.
For the attention of the public, here is an announcement from the Department of
Disaster Management. As per the warning issued today by the Meteorological
Department, there exists a high probability of a widespread heavy downpour from
the early hours of Sunday and consequent flooding of low-lying areas. In order
to ensure safety of life and property, everyone is hereby warned and advised to
take certain precautionary measures:

  • First of all, prepare a household flood
    plan and be ready to respond to the situation.
  • Find out the locations of the closest flood
    shelters available and routes to reach them.
  • Maintain an emergency kit comprising water
    bottles, biscuit packets, medical supplies, a torch light, and a whistle to
    signal for help.
  • Paste or fix a list of emergency telephone
    numbers on the wall in a visible spot.
  • Switch off hazardous items like gas
    cylinders and disconnect electrical gadgets.
  • Secure important personal documents and
    valuables in a waterproof case and place it in an accessible location.
  • Place small pieces of furniture and
    clothing on tables and cots.
  • Shift all the small objects safely to the
  • Empty your refrigerators and leave their
    doors open to avoid damage in case they float.
  • Charge your mobile phones as well as your
    battery banks so as to communicate with friends, relatives and emergency
  • Place sandbags in the toilet bowls and
    bathroom drain holes to prevent sewage inflow.
  • Prepare and pack food with a long shelf
  • Finally, listen to the periodic news
    updates through your portable communication devices and follow the instructions

  1. The announcement was made by the Department
    of _________
  2. Widespread heavy rains are expected from
    the early hours of _________
  3. The public is asked to find out the
    locations of _________
  4. An emergency kit should contain water
    bottles, biscuit packets and a _________
  5. A list _________ of should be displayed on
    the wall.
  6. Important documents can be secured by
    keeping them in a _________ case.
  7. Damage to refrigerators can be avoided by
  8. Mobile phones should be charged to enable
    the marooned to contact their friends, relatives and _________
  9.  _________ should be placed in the toilet bowls
    to prevent sewage inflow.
  10. Listen to the _________ and follow the
    instructions implicitly.


  1. Disaster Management
  2. Sunday
  3. closest flood
  4. whistle
  5. emergency telephone
  6. waterproof
  7. emptying
    refrigerators and leaving their doors open
  8. emergency services
  9. Sandbags
  10. periodic news

Task 1

On the occasion of World Environment Day,
you have been asked to deliver a speech during morning assembly on the
importance of tree planting. Write the speech in about 100 -150 words.


value points

control – Medicine – Necessary for wildlife – Cause rainfall


Principal, chief guest and dignitaries on the dias and off the dias.

Good evening. I am
immensely delighted to speak to you on World Environment Day. All of you know
that we celebrate Environment Day on 5th June, every year, let me explain why
we celebrate World Environment Day. The relationship between humanity and
environment is a delicate balance. Since the industrial revolution, the world’s
population has increased exponentially. With the population growth, the
environment has been profoundly affected. Deforestation, pollution and global
climatic changes are amongst the adverse effects the explosive population and
technological expansion have introduced. The main objective of Environment Day
is to gain greater understanding of the environment. This enhanced awareness, I
believe, will help the country reduce carbon foot prints, increase the use of
solar power, reduce and recycle non-biodegradable waste and evolve alternative
technologies which would reduce our dependence on fossil fuels.


Moreover, tree
planting will be done on a mission modeby school children and college students
representing NCC and NSS wings. This would spread the forest cover and give
shelter to the wild life and also ensure plentiful rainfall sustaining life on
this lovely planet. Student community shall disseminate the urgent need to
conserve water and other natural resources. I appeal to the younger generation,
I mean my friends to be socially responsive and do their part to preserve the


Task 2

Prepare a speech on “The importance of a reading habit” in about
100-150 words using the hints given below together with your own ideas.



value points

enrichment – Skill development – Meaningful usage of time – Overall  development


Most distinguished
chief guest, revered Principal, dignitaries on the dias and off the dias, my
beloved teachers and friends. This morning 1 wish to share my views on a
man-making habit called ‘Reading’.


Books are the
quietest and most constant of friends. They are the most accessible and wisest
of counselors and most patient of teachers. Some schools do focus on developing
a flair for reading by keeping a library period. Children are allowed to borrow
books and also share their observations with their peers after the library hour
is over. Such sharing introduces children to the wonder world of books. The art
of reading is in great part that of acquiring a better understanding of life
from one’s encounter with it in a book. Through reading, one exposes oneself to
new things, new ways to solve a problem. Reading is a very useful hobby.
Wisemen have lauded the importance of reading and the hobby of reading. Kofi
Annan said, “Literacy is a bridge from misery to hope.”


William James said,
“So it is with children who learn to read fluently and well. They begin to take
flight into whole new worlds as effortlessly as young birds take to the sky.”
Dear friends let us read books and conquer the world.



Read the passage given below and make notes.

To match the best
cities across the world, the Government of India initiated ‘smart cities’ to
drive economic growth and improve the quality of life of people. The agenda
under smart city promises to resolve urban sustainability problems. Urban
forests provide a range of important ecosystem services that are critical for
the sustainability of cities. Urban forestry, which is defined more as
‘Management of Trees’ contributes to the physiological, sociological
andeconomic well-being of the society. Mangroves, lakes, grasslands, and
forests in and around our cities, act as sponges that absorb the air and noise
pollution and they present themselves as our cultural and recreational
hotspots. However, these spots are rapidly being reclaimed” and replaced in the
name of development. Presence of urban green has shown to increase the economic
value of the place.

Urban forests
contribute to reduce the cost of building storm water drain systems for
municipalities and neutralizing urban heat island effect. Plants not only
provide shade but also help in regulating the micro-climate. They help regulate
energy budgets, improve air quality, and curtail noise pollution. Trees, herbs,
shrubs and grasses arrest sedimentation and prevent other pollutants from
entering our water systems. This will give a chance for our urban lakes and
rivers to recover and help improve aquatic ecosystems. Biodiversity also gets a
boost through the urban forests and helps create corridors connecting the
forest areas. High biodiversity areas can also help to build resilient
ecosystems. Availability of forests within our urban areas gives an opportunity
for children to connect to the natural environment and learn about native


1. Agenda of smart cities

Resolve urban sustainability
problems-manage trees-urban forestry-psychological and sociological well-being
of society.


2. Main advantages of urban forestry

Mangroves, lakes, grasslands and forests-sponges
absorbing noise and air pollutants Recreational hotspots-urban green-additive
economic value-threat in the name of development.


3. Impact on climate

Reduce cost of storm water drain
system-neutralise urban heat island effect-maintains I microclimate.


4. Enhancing environmental health

Regulate energy budget-air quality
improved-sedimentation arrested-pollutants prevented I from entering water
systems-urban lakes and rivers revive aquatic ecosystems.


5. Biodiversity

Biodiversity enhanced-resilient ecosystems
developed-children get connected to natural environment.




Task 1

the correct options and complete the dialogue.

A: Hello. What do you watch / are you

B: A programme about the Jallian Wala Bagh
massacre, which I recorded last night. I study /I’m studying about it this

A: All that I know / I’ve known about it is
that hundreds of people died / had died in it.

B: Yes, it was much, much worse than anyone
has expected / had expected. It went on / has gone on for hours. Do you want /
Have you wanted to watch the programme with me?

A: No, thanks. I’ve got to do some veena
practice. I’ve just remembered /1 just remembered that we’ve got a concert
tomorrow, and I don’t have / haven’t had time to practise my new piece this

B: OK. I’ve already done /I already did my
practice, so I’ve got time to watch TV. See you later.


are you watching

I’m studying

I’ve known, had

had expected, went
on, Do you want

I’ve just
remembered, haven’t had

I already did


Task 2

the sentences with the correct tense form of the verbs in brackets.

(a) ________ (tell) me exactly what
________ (happen) last night!

(b) Mrs. Mageswari is my Maths teacher. She
________ (teach) me for four years.

(c) I ________ (never /think) of a career
in medicine before I spoke to my Biology teacher but now I (seriously/
consider) it.

(d) Oh no! I ________ (forget) to bring my
assignment! What am I going to do? This is the second time I (do) this!

(e) I can’t remember what my teacher
________ (say) yesterday about our homework. I (not listen) properly because
Hussain (talk) to me at the same time.

(f) Last year we ________ (go) on a school
trip to Kanyakumari. We (have) a very interesting time.

(g) At the moment I ________ (think) about
what course to pursue next year but I (notmake) a final decision yet.

(h) I ________ (get) up at 7 every morning
but this morning I (sleep) for a long time and I ________ (not get) up until 8.


(a) Tell, happened

(b) has been

(c) never thought,
am seriously considering it

(d) forgot, have

(e) said, was not
listening, was talking

(f) went, had

(g) am thinking,
have not made

(h) get, slept, did
not get


Task 3

in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs given in the brackets.

(a) Everyone ________ when the earthquake
hit the small town, (sleep)

(b) Evangelene ________ her job a couple of
years ago. (quit)

(c) Where ________ your last holidays? (you

(d) I think Suresh ________ for Tiruvallur
next morning, (leave)

(e) I was angry that I ________ such a
mistake (make).

(f) My mother was tired yesterday because
she ________ well the night before (not sleep).

(g) Her parents ________ in Coimbatore for
two weeks from today (be).

(h) Nothing much ________ when I got to the
meeting (happen).

(i) Scientists predict that by 2050, man
________ on Mars, (land)

(J) Sh! Someone ________ to our
conversation! (listen)

(k) The plane ________ off in a few
minutes, (take)

(l) They ________ about me when I
interrupted their conversation, (talk)

(m) Justin and his parents ________ in an
apartment right now because they can’t find a cheap house, (live)

(n) Rajini Prem’s family ________ in
Chengalpet now. (be).

(o) Yusuf ________ to the movies once in a
while (go)

(p) This ________ an easy quiz so far (be).

(q) Our team ________ any games last year,
(not win)

(r) We ________ a wonderful film at the
cinema last night, (see)

(s) Hurry up! The movie ________ (already


(a) was sleeping

(b) had quit

(c) did you spend

(d) left

(e) had made

(f) had not slept

(g) will be

(h) had happened

(i) will land

(j) is listening

(k) will take

(l) were talking

(m) are living

(n) is

(o) goes

(p) has been

(q) did not win

(r) saw

(s) may have
already begun


Modal Auxiliaries

Task 1

in the blanks with modal auxiliaries.

(a) The candidates ________ answer five out
of ten questions.

(b) How ________ you open my bag?

(c) Tajudeen ________ finish this work by

(d) ________ I go to school today?

(e) I wish you ________ tell me the truth.

(f) Poonam ________ not catch the bus

(g) People who live in glass houses
________ not throw stones.

(h) You ________ not go to the market as I
have brought vegetables.

(i) ________ you have taken all this

(j) You ________ be joking.

(k) I tried to climb up the tree, but
________ not.

(l) Hima Das ran so fast that she ________
win the medal.

(m) You ________ lead a horse to water, but
you make it drink.

(n) I ________ like to have a cup of

(o) My grandfather ________ visit this
temple when he was young.


(a) should

(b) dare

(c) can

(d) May

(e) could

(J) could

(g) should

(h) need

(i) Should

(j) must

(k) could

(l) could

(m) can, can’t

(n) would

(o) used to


Task 2

the following sentences with modals using the clues given.

(a) You ________ help the needy, (moral

(b) If I were you, I ________ not behave
like that, (conditional sentence)

(c) I ________ never tell a lie.

(d) My uncle ________ have reached by now.

(e) to play hockey when I was a student,
(past habit)

(f) You not attend my class, (order)

(h) He come today, (remote possibility)

(i) You rollow the traffic rules,

(j) He play the match, (willingness)

(k) You not waste time on it. (necessity)

(l) Had the doctor come in time, he have
saved the patient.(probability)



(a) ought to

(b) would

(c) will

(d) may

(e) must

(f) used

(g) should

(h) might

(i) should

(j) would

(k) need

(l) would


Reported Speech

Task 1

what these people say and rewrite as sentences.

1. I am very busy.

Answer: Raja said that he
was very busy.

2. I have completed my work.

Answer: Satya said that she
had completed her work


3. I
don’t like to go out.

Johnson said that he didn’t like to go out


4. I
have just come back from Chennai.

Akshita said that she had just comeback from Chennai


5. I
am learning English.

Jayan said that he was learning English


6. I
bought a pen yesterday.

Madhu said that she had bought a pen the previous day


7. We
will go shopping tomorrow.

Joseph and Mary said that they would go shopping the next day


8. We can’t attend the party.

Afsar and Ayesha said that they couldn’t attend the party


9. How are you?



10. I am line. Thank you.

Victor enquired how Victor was replied that he was fine and thanked him


Task 2

the following dialogue and complete the report in the space provided.

Question 1.

Priya : Where are you going?

Vijay : I am going to the railway station.

Priya : Why are you going there?

Vijay : I want to receive my uncle who is
coming from Bangalore.


Priya asked Vijay : (a) where he was going.

Vijay replied : (b) that he was going to
the railway station.

Priya further inquired : (c) why he was
going there.

Vijay stated that : (d) he wanted to
receive his uncle who was coming from Bangalore.


Question 2.

Teacher : Why are you late?

Divya : I missed the bus.

Teacher : You should have reached the bus
stop on time.

Divya : My grandmother is ill. So, I had to
take her to the doctor.

Teacher : I am sorry. What ails her?

Divya : She has high fever.


The teacher asked
Divya why she was late. Divya replied that ___(a)___The teacher told her that
___(b)___ Divya said that her grandmother was ill so she had to take her to the
doctor. The teacher felt sorry and further asked her ___(c)___Divya explained
that she ___(d) ___ high fever.


(a) she had missed
the bus

(b) she should have
reached the bus stop on time .

(c) what ailed her

(d) had


Task 3

the following passage in indirect speech.

Pradeep got out of bed with much
excitement. “It is going to be a lovely sunny day,” he remarked to his sister

I “Just let me sleep a bit longer,
Pradeep,” Varshini begged, “and since you are feeling so

enthusiastic,” she suggested, “Why don’t
you go and help mother in cooking?”

“Sure, I will”, said Pradeep. “Can I help
you, mum?”, he said to his mother.

“Yes, of course. There are idlis and vadas
on the dining table. Have your breakfast.”

“Thank you, mum; I’ll surely help you by
eating them.”


‘Pradeep got out of his bed with much
excitement and told his sister that it was going to be a lovely Sunday.
Varshini requested him to let her sleep a bit longer. She added that as he was
feeling so enthusiastic he should go and help mother in cooking. Pradeep agreed
readily. He asked his mom if he could help her. Mom agreed and asked him to
have breakfast adding that there were idlis and vadas on the dining table.
Pradeep thanked mom and said that he would surely help her by eating them.



Letter Writing

Read the following letter carefully, discuss with your partner and answer the


I request you o
publish the following letter in your daily to address an important issue which
needs immediate redressal.

During week ends
motorcyclists are seen racing on the East Coast road and the Old Mahabalipuram
road of Chennai. The amateur racers are risking their own lives and of the
public as well. They are fearless and irresponsible, not knowing the price of
human lives. Risking others and their lives for their pleasure is highly

Even school
students indulge in such activities and cause fatal accidents. The racers have
started occupying the lanes and streets of busy localities. As such, the
violation of traffic rules often results in loss of young lives. Such reckless
riders who violate traffic rules should be punished severely.

As a responsible
citizen of the society, I request the authorities concerned to take appropriate
measures to put an end to this menace.


Yours truly,




(a) Who is the sender of the letter?

The sender is Dheepak


(b) Who is the receiver?

The editor of a Newspaper (unnamed).


(c) What is the issue?

Bike racing on the East Coast road and the Old Mahabalipuram road of Chennai is
the issue.


(d) What is the request of the sender?

The reckless riders who violate traffic rules must be punished. This is the
request of the sender.


(e) Who will take steps after reading it?

The authorities concerned will take steps after reading it.


You have chosen Computer Science in the Higher Secondary Course. Write a letter
to your friend giving reasons for your choice. Read the clues given in brackets
to complete the letter.


(1) _____ (Greeting),

Hope (2) ______ (enquire about his well
being). I would like to (3) ______ Firstly (4) ______ (reason for your choice
of group). I wish (5) ______ (state your ambition). We come to hear (6) ______
(discuss recent unhealthy happenings in social media and the society). These
have made me (7) ______ (demand or need of this profession). I have plans to
pursue (8) ______ (higher studies or specialization).

All the best for your CA preparation.

Convey my (9) ______

Yours lovingly,

(your name)


1. Dear Ram

2. you are doing

3. inform you that
I have chosen Computer Science stream in eleventh

4. one has to have
sound knowledge of computers and without computer literacy one can’t succeed in

5. to become a
Computer Engineer

6. cyber bullying
and sexploitation

7. understand the
need of ethical computer engineers in tackling such issues

8. Computer Science
Engineering in Anna University

9. kind regards to
your parents



You had been to your Grandma’s house during the summer holidays. You enjoyed
your stay in her company. Write a letter to your Grandma stating how much you
miss her after returning to your home.


Dear Grandma,

I am fine. I hope
your health is fine. My stay in your house was really wonderful. You spent a
lot of time with me sharing recipes for many delicious dishes. Everyday you
prepared curry with vegetables from your own garden. The food you gave was so
tasty that I envied my mom who had spent the best part of her life with you. I
just love the stories you shared every evening. Grandma, you had herbal
remedies for every kind of ailment. I wish I could come again during next
summer and stay with you.


Yours lovingly,



K. Savithri

18, Mettu St.

Chennai – 603001


You are the head of the English department in a renowned institution. You are
invited to preside over the inauguration of the English Literary club in your
alma mater. Respond to the letter you have received either accepting the
invitation or expressing your inability to attend the function.


Dear Vijaya Sarathy,

Received your
invitation. I am really glad to accept your invitation to inaugurate the
English Literary Club in the school where I had completed my twelfth standard
15 years ago. Don’t worry about sending a car. I will come in my own car. You
can fix any working day in the second week of November.


With Warm



Yours sincerely



Vijaya Sarathy

Secretary, Literary




Inability to attend the function

Dear Sarathy,


Received your invitation, I wish I could
attend the inaugural meeting of the literary club. It would be such an honour
as I have studied in that school. But I need to attend an international
conference in Thailand. I will be away during second and third week of October.
1 would recommend you to invite Dr. Sangeetha, a great scholar who has recently
done her Ph.D. in Modem Poetry (i.e.) Pudhukavithai. Though she is young, she
is a versatile genius and it would be appropriate if you would come and invite
her in person. Good luck for the success of the programme.

With Warm Regards Yours sincerely Anjali

Dept, of English

ABC College of Arts and Science Chennai –


Vijaya Sarathy

Secretary, Literary




Write a letter to the Headmaster of your school requesting him to help you
obtain a duplicate mark sheet of class XII, which you lost while travelling.



S. Kavinilavan

18, Gangu Reddy

Egmore Chennai To

The Headmaster

Govt. HSS


Respected Sir,

Sub: Loss of
Twelfth Marksheet


I completed my
twelfth in your esteemed school in the year 2016-2017. My reg. no. is 98781. I
lost my twelfth marksheet. I request you to kindly guide me to get a duplicate
marksheet from the Directorate of Government Examinations at the earliest.

With warm regards.


Yours sincerely

S. Kavinilavan


The Headmaster

Govt. HSS



Write a letter to AZ Company requesting them to replace the defective juicer
that you bought recently. Include the following details: the problem, date of
purchase, receipt number, model and warranty.


K. Mani

18, East Street



The Manager

A2 Company

18, Dindigul Road



Sub: Request to
replace defective juicer-Reg.


I bought Preethi
juicer mixie on 18.02.19 vide bill no. 1781. On reaching home I tried to make
apple juice. The juicer rotates but the cut apples were not crushed. I believe
this is a mechanical fault. Could you please replace the faulty Preethi juicer
with a new one? Photocopies of warranty card and the bill are enclosed.


Yours sincerely

K. Mani



The Manager

A2 Company


18, Dindigul Road



You wish to become a pilot. Write a letter to a college enquiring about the
details of the pilot training course offered by the college. Include the
following details in your enquiry: duration of the course, fee structure,
scholarships, hostel facilities and placement details.



L. Kathiravan

17, Awaiyar St.

K.K. Nagar

Madurai – 20 To


The Principal

PTC Aviation

Chennai – 600044


Warm Greetings.

Sub: Enquiry about Pilot training

I saw your
advertisement in the Indian Express newspaper about pilot training course
yesterday. I would like to become a commercial pilot. Kindly clarify my doubts
by answering the following questions.

1. How long do you
conduct the course for the candidates who want to become pilots?

2. What is the fee
structure of the course?

3. I have 90+ marks
in I Group in my +2 Board examinations. Is there any scholarship or concession
in fee structure for meritorious candidates?

4. What is the
success rate of placements in your institute for trained pilots?

I shall contact you in person after
receiving your information-packed reply.


Yours sincerely

L. Kathiravan


The Principal

PTC Aviation


Chennai – 600044


Write a letter to the manager of Waves Furniture Company ordering furniture for
a coaching centre. Include the following details: description of the furniture,
number of pieces, mode of payment, time and delivery options.



M. Usharani

NEET Coaching
Centre Government Girl’s Hr. Sec. School Egmore


The Sales Manager

Waves Furniture

Station Road



We need 100 double
desks (i.e.) Desk + bench enabling four students to sit comfortably and write
at a time. On receipt of the green painted iron double desks, we will make payment
through cheque. Delivery can be effected only after personal verification of
sample piece tailor-made for our school requirements. You can deliver the
pieces before 28th July without fail.


Yours sincerely

S/d Usharani


The Sales Manager

Waves Furniture

Station Road



Write an application for the post of Personal Secretary to the Managing
Director of a company. Include the following details: Educational
qualification, experience, various other qualifications required for the post.



R. Kalaivani, B.Sc.

23, Karameswar Koil

Saidapet Chennai –


The Managing

Mathew Garments
Rameshwaram Road

T. Nagar,

Chennai – 17


With reference to
your advertisement in The Hindu dated 18.02.19,1 wish to apply for the post of
Personal Secretary. I am a Science graduate from Loyola College. I have done my
short hand and P.G. Diploma in Human Resource Management. I can take notes and
type in the computer at a reasonable speed. I have an experience of working as
a part-time Personal Secretary to Shri Ram Chits Company Manager for a period
of three years. I have good working knowledge of English and Tamil. I request
you to consider my application favourably and send me a call letter. I assure
you, I would execute my job to the best satisfaction of my superiors.


With Regards

Yours Sincerely

R. Kalaivani


The Managing

Mathew Garments

Rameshwaram Road,
T. Nagar

Chennai – 17


Write a letter the Editor of a newspaper about the nuisance created by the
roadside vendors blocking the pavements and occupying the parking zone.



M. Kalavathi

24, South Car St



The Editor

The Hindu

Chennai – 2


Sub: Nuisance of vendors
in roads and parking spaces

Many foot path
vendors are blocking the pavements and occupying parking areas in South Car St.
and the nearby parking areas. All those vendors who eke out a living may be
allotted shops elsewhere to curtail this menace. Kindly publish this in your
newspapers so that Madurai corporation and the traffic police may take the
necessary action.


Yours Sincerely

M. Kalavathy


The Editor

The Hindu

Chennai – 2


Write a letter to your relative or friend who is admitted in hospital for
treatment of jaundice. Advise him/her not to worry about the illness and be
positive. Assure him/her of your psychological and financial help during the


Dear Mala,

Received the letter
informing me of your ailment. Jaundice can be cured by herbs very quickly
without serious side effects. Sirukurinjan Thalai is a remarkable herb which
would expedite the cure. In case you have already started the treatment, don’t
worry, if you need money, I will transfer it to your account by NEFT or I can
transfer it from my Paytm App.’ Drink only boiled water. Avoid oily and spicy
food items. You must take fruit juices to recover completely. Don’t worry, I’m
there for you. Get well soon.


With love Kural Mathi



Meenakshi Nagar


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